MISCARRIAGES, Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment.
Why does an early miscarriage occur?
Unfortunately, according to statistics, more than 15% of pregnancies end in spontaneous abortion, that is, miscarriages. It is worth noting that this mainly occurs in the early stages - in the first 12 weeks. And in most cases, a woman is not even aware of her situation.
In medicine, miscarriage is called spontaneous before 22 weeks, because children born later can still be saved. However, there are some nuances here, for example, only those who were born with a weight of more than 500 g can live.
As mentioned above, usually a woman is unaware of her pregnancy. She has a delay in her period. However, they still begin a little later, although they become more abundant than before. Pain may occur.
When the stomach aches a little, and the bleeding stops on time, the woman does not even notice that a miscarriage occurred along with menstruation. However, with heavy and prolonged periods, you need to urgently seek medical help.
If an impressive blood clot comes out during menstruation at a certain moment, then we can already say for sure about the loss of the child. In this case, a doctor's examination is also necessary - for an accurate diagnosis and, possibly, cleaning.
Reasons for early miscarriage
- Unhealthy lifestyle , including excessive coffee consumption and bad habits: smoking, alcohol, drugs. Nutrition plays an important role. It should contain vitamins and other nutrients, but also be balanced;
- History of abortion. Spontaneous or for medical reasons, one way or another, they disrupt the normal functioning of the body. Their consequences affect the success of subsequent pregnancies, and also often lead to infertility;
- Genetic disorders of the fetus. This situation is caused by a mutation in the germ cells of the parents. Usually external factors are to blame: radiation, poor ecology, occupational hazards, various viruses, etc. We can say that spontaneous abortion for this reason is natural selection, when weak and nonviable individuals die;
- Hormonal imbalance. For a successful pregnancy fromthere is progesterone. If women are found to have hormonal imbalance even during the planning of a child, then she is prescribed special hormonal therapy;
- Rh conflict. As an example, the fetus is Rh positive, while the mother is Rh negative. Then the body will reject the embryo, perceiving it as a foreign substance. To prevent such a situation, parents must pass an analysis to determine Rhesus. If they are different, they usually use progesterone, which plays a protective role;
- Infections. Expectant parents should be screened for sexually transmitted diseases during pregnancy. If they are not cured, then the fetus will also be infected and subsequently die. In addition, inflammatory and infectious diseases of the internal organs affect the bearing of a child. When there is a pathology in the body, accompanied by intoxication and an increase in temperature over 38 degrees, the embryo will not be able to stay in the uterine cavity. To avoid such a situation, you need to undergo a full examination, cure chronic diseases or vaccinate if necessary;
- Medicines and herbs . It is not recommended to take any remedies and herbs in the first trimester, because they can lead to abnormal development of the fetus. It is worth giving up the use of any kind of plants such as: parsley, St. John's wort, tansy, nettle, cornflower;
- Stress, sudden grief, prolonged psychological pressure also do not have a positive effect. In such cases, you need to consult with your doctor about taking any sedatives, for example, the familiar valerian;
- Physical factors. An unsuccessful fall, strong physical stress, etc. can serve as a kind of impetus.
signs of early miscarriage
The first signs are lower abdominal pain and bleeding. Pain sensations can be given to the lower back. Discharge is scarlet to dark brown. When these signs appear, you need to urgently consult a doctor, because in many cases pregnancy can be saved. But when small particles of tissue are noticeable in the discharge, this indicates a miscarriage that has already occurred.
The tone of the uterus is also a threat, but only when it causes discomfort and is accompanied by painful sensations. When he does not have such symptoms, doctors recommend that the expectant mother rest more, avoid stressful situations and physical exertion.
At any time, the symptoms are similar, but may differ in intensity.
Symptoms of miscarriage in the second trimester:
- Vaginal discharge, but not bloody. They happen when the bag with amniotic fluid is damaged. In such a situation, you need to see a doctor as soon as possible;
- Vaginal bleeding. At any time, this phenomenon is a reason for a visit to the doctor;
- Internal bleeding. Severe pain in the region of the stomach or shoulder tells about him;
- Blood clots when urinating. In this case, there is slight soreness.
early diagnosis of miscarriage
The possibility of such an unpleasant situation can be minimized. First of all, the birth of a child must be planned. In such cases, when contacting a doctor, both parents receive referrals for a number of tests and studies.
Discovered pathologies must be cured. If there are any contraindications, then they pay attention to them already at conception. When a young family finds itself in such a situation, the diagnosis of the threat of miscarriage and treatment are carried out in advance.
But in the case of a spontaneous pregnancy, when there was no preliminary examination and treatment, the gynecologist can diagnose a threat or miscarriage during a routine examination. When examining a woman who has come up with the problem of delayed menstruation, the doctor determines the expected period.
Then the gynecologist checks:
- Presence of uterine tone;
- Correspondence of the size of the uterus to the established date;
- Is the cervix closed;
- The nature of the discharge (mucous or bloody).
The most reliable diagnostic method is transvaginal ultrasound. An experienced doctor determines the length of the cervix and internal os.
treat early miscarriage
Usually, first of all, it is advised to adhere to bed rest, to minimize physical activity. Valerian or motherwort may be prescribed to keep a woman calm, to save her from stress, bad news and thoughts.
If there is a threat, then first of all its cause is determined. Often they take hormonal drugs (designed to maintain a good pregnancy). These can be drugs with progesterone, from hyperandrogenism (high levels of male sex hormones), from the threat of Rh-conflict.
In some cases, additional intrauterine ultrasound is required. If failure is diagnosed, stitches are applied to the cervix to stop the release of the ovum. The operation is carried out in a hospital, under anesthesia, while relaxing drugs are administered.
Very often, women with such a diagnosis are hospitalized and often until the very birth of the child. Sometimes therapy can start at a health facility and end at home.
Also, in most cases, after treatment, a similar condition in women is no longer observed. But it is worth recalling that if there are signs of a miscarriage occurring in the early stages, you need to urgently contactto the doctor, perhaps even call an ambulance, because there is always a chance to save the fetus and preserve the pregnancy.
The main thing is to conduct preliminary examinations and pass the necessary tests, and if pathologies, inflammations and other disorders are detected, cure them. It is recommended to change your lifestyle six months before the planned date of conception, that is, adhere to a healthy one.
If a woman has already had a spontaneous abortion, then in any case it is necessary to find out its reason, because the situation may repeat itself. In addition, if any of the above symptoms appear, it is a reason to visit a gynecologist.