DNA Paternity Testing theory explaned
When is it necessary and how to do a DNA paternity test?
You can establish paternity on your own, just by contacting the clinic where the appropriate private tests are performed. However, most often this procedure has to go through the courts, for example, when a man does not consider himself the father of a particular child and does not pay alimony because of this.
In such a situation, the court makes a decision to conduct a genetic test, which is called a legal test.
Only government experts or specially trained individuals in private clinics can conduct such an event. In addition, establishing paternity in court requires not only test results, but also a certain package of documents.
You also need to take into account that such a test can be of two types:
- Court determined . This procedure is complicated and quite lengthy, but it is required in the case when the man does not recognize paternity. First of all, the mother of the child must go to court with a claim in this regard. After that, the court sends a request for the appointment of a DNA test. Then the woman's application is satisfied and a decision is made. Then, in the medical institution, the biological material necessary for the examination is taken, and a protocol is drawn up on the procedure. Samples are taken from both parents and the child. The sampling is painless - a smear is taken from the inside of the cheek. Results are sent directly to court;
- Pre-trial proceedings . In this case, there is a mutual agreement proceeding. The analysis is taken voluntarily. However, it is better to go to court to order an expert examination. After the decision is made, as in the first case, they go to the clinic.
It happens that men become initiators, for example, this happens during divorce, when doubts ariseiya about the fact of paternity. A man can file a lawsuit after divorce and the appointment of alimony if he is in doubt about this.
If the results are negative, the man may be exempted from paying child support.
In this case, a DNA test is necessary to confirm the relationship between the child and the grandmother / grandfather. Determination of paternity in this case is necessary in the absence of the father; when his samples are not available; he is not alive. When the mother also takes the test, the accuracy of the test increases.
How to establish paternity without the consent of the father
Unfortunately, if a man refuses to take an analysis even by a court decision, then no one has the right to force him. As a rule, in such a situation, a decision is made based on the available evidence (personal correspondence, money transfers, facts confirming living together, etc.).
Disclaimer of paternity: how to dispute by mutual consent
- Paternity is primarily determined by the presence of marriage. A man who is married to a woman is recorded as the father of the baby on his birth certificate. If the child was born after a divorce (within 300 days), this circumstance also persists;
- Paternity can be determined by a joint application of the parents to the registry office. Such a procedure is necessary in the case when the baby's parents are not married, but the man voluntarily recognizes paternity. If at the time of filing the application the man knew that he was not a biological parent, then the court will not further satisfy his challenge of paternity even by mutual consent of the parties;
- Paternity is established by a court decision. The need for such a procedure arises when the alleged father does not voluntarily submit an application to the registry office or the mother refuses to recognize him as a father.
Voluntary renunciation of paternity is not practiced. This can be done only if the man considered himself the biological father, but it turned out that this was not the case. Paternity can be challenged by people who are recorded in the birth certificate as father and mother, legal representatives of the child or he himself upon reaching the age of majority.
DNA test: how a paternity test is done
This analysis is currently the most accurate and reliable method used to establish kinship. Genetic research, or DNA- test , allows you to determine whether a man is the biological father of a particular child or not.
As already mentioned, the procedure is most often appointed by the court after the petition, but you can carry it out yourself. In the latter case, the results obtained cannot be used in the future in court proceedings.
It should be noted that other methods, for example, a study by blood group, hair and eye color,do not give 100% results. In addition, such methods are now recognized as ineffective all over the world. As for the genetic analysis of the DNA of the child and the parents, it is the gold standard throughout the world in establishing relationship.
Special laboratories use high-tech equipment and other developments in the field of genetics. All studies are carried out using genetic analyzers and software systems, which eliminates the human factor and ensures high accuracy of results.
Methods for conducting DNA tests
A person inherits DNA from their parents: exactly half from each of them. Any piece of DNA that is not detected in the mother's samples must be obtained from the father. In the absence of biological material from the mother, the presence of coincidences in certain regions of the child's and father's DNA is determined.
Establishment of paternity is carried out by examining standard genetic markers - 16, 18 or 23. In some medical institutions, two independent groups of laboratory technicians conduct the analysis at once, and then they verify the results. This approach provides almost 100% accuracy.
Collection of biological material
To conduct the analysis, DNA samples of the alleged biological father and child are required, preferably also material from the mother. Samples can be obtained in different ways, for example, it can be saliva, earwax, nails, hair, etc. Any cell of the human body contains a set of DNA, so there is no significant difference in the material for research.
As a rule, domestic laboratories use only blood, as they have outdated equipment that is unable to work with other materials. A significant disadvantage of this method is the impossibility of self-sampling, for example, in the case of an anonymous request, when the client independently selects the material without disturbing his relatives.
Many laboratories have settled on an analysis where cells obtained from the inner surface of the cheek are used as a sample - a buccal or oral swab, where the material is taken with a brush or a regular cotton swab.
The big advantage of this method is that it is not invasive, completely painless, the procedure takes only a few seconds. In addition, nails, hair, blood and semen are now widely used for research.
Establishing paternity before childbirth
While carrying a baby, the main difficulty lies in taking samples for research. Analysis can be done as early as 9 weeks: a fetal membrane sample is required.
In medicine, this procedure is also called chorionic biopsy. The optimal time is the period from 14 to 20 weeks of pregnancy. In this case, take a sample of amniotic fluid and a blood sample from the umbilical cord. In the third trimester, only the navel is neededwine blood.
Samples are obtained by puncturing the abdomen and uterus with a special syringe. The procedure is performed under the supervision of an ultrasound machine in a hospital. However, during the event, the possibility of taking the placental biomaterial of the woman herself is not excluded. Then the test result will be false positive. To exclude this, a sample of the woman's DNA is needed.
Before carrying out this procedure, weigh the pros and cons. You may be able to find a compromise without the need for this analysis. If it was not possible to find points of contact, follow the above rules to avoid unpleasant consequences.