Preventing Childhood Injuries
What is the danger of childhood injuries?
In most cases, babies' injuries are due to parental oversight. For some reason, it is believed that falls and bruises at this age do not have negative health consequences. This is a misconception. Cranial bruises in young children have the same consequences as in older children and adults, and can affect later life.
Therefore, it is very important to know how to determine whether a child had a concussion in order to provide first aid. Loss of consciousness in children under 3 years old occurs in very rare cases.
Symptoms concussion in a child depending on age
The typical symptoms of a concussion in an infant usually do not appear. Rolling off the table or falling out of the crib or stroller, the baby does not always start crying, and very quickly calms down.
Parents should be alerted if the following symptoms are observed after a skull injury:
- hematoma appeared on the head;
- more frequent regurgitation;
- the skin was noted to be paler;
- increased sleepiness;
- an unreasonable executioner and anxiety appeared;
- blood streaks are visible in the stool;
- pink urine;
- sleep disorders have been identified.
If all these signs of a concussion are manifested in an infant in combination, or if 2-3 of the above changes are noticed, you should contact your pediatrician for advice.
Symptoms increase within a few hours after the injury, immediately after the injury, the baby feels well.
In a preschooler, the signs of a concussion are more similar to those of an adult skull injury.
These include the following symptoms:
- change in blood pressure - in most cases, a decrease;
- constant feeling of nausea;
- vomiting during or after meals;
- changing heart rate;
- pallor of the skin;
- loss of consciousness immediately after falling or within a few minutes.
After an injury, profuse sweating may appear in a few hours, the child will complain of a headache. Pain can be exhausting for a long time after injury.
There is one more difference between children's symptomsoomatics from an adult - a slight temperature may rise with a concussion in a child. Already in adolescents and adults, fever occurs only if the injury has caused concomitant inflammation in the body or on the basis of nerves , from fright. The increase in temperature is usually insignificant, especially if there is no pronounced hematoma.
A peculiarity of signs of concussion in a child is that they do not necessarily appear in the first days. One of the symptoms may appear, and then the condition deteriorates sharply, and it turns out that the brain damage is quite serious.
Therefore, even if the fall did not have any effect on the change in the baby's behavior, he is still cheerful, cheerful, feels good and sleeps, you need to watch him for at least a week, analyzing the behavior. Better to be safe than to treat the consequences of your own oversight for a long time.
First aid after injury
When the child hits his head, do the following:
- If the victim is conscious, he should be laid on a horizontal surface on his back. When a chill is felt, it is necessary to wrap it up in a warm blanket. When the victim is unconscious, he must be laid on his right side, freeing up the area of the heart, bending his left arm and leg at an angle of 90º - this will make it much easier to breathe. In case of uneven pulsation and shortness of breath, the condition must be stabilized by performing artificial respiration, which sometimes has to be combined with chest compressions.
- Even if there are no bruises and open wounds, it is necessary to examine the child's body for injuries and bruises.
- If a decision is made - to call emergency care - the victim must be in a horizontal position before the arrival of the medical team.
Parents should ask the baby as accurately as possible about all the sensations they have, try to understand exactly what worries him, in order to correctly formulate complaints to doctors. The more accurately parents can describe the victim's condition, the more accurately the doctor will be able to determine whether the injury is serious and whether there is a concussion.
Concussion in a child is diagnosed in the same way for preschoolers and schoolchildren.
Basic damage detection methods:
The pediatrician determines the examination methods; in the case of severe trauma, an examination by a pediatric neurologist and traumatologist may be necessary. In severe cases, neurosurgical consultations are carried out.
In the case of an infant, neurosonography may be required. This term refers to the study of the brain using ultrasound.
Thus, it is possible to identify the presence of tumors and defects in soft tissuescanals of the head, clarify their size, see vascular tumors, examine the structure of bones and the medulla itself.
If it is difficult to establish a diagnosis or to clarify it, the following manipulations may be required:
- magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography of the brain;
- and even lumbar puncture.
Puncture is necessary if there is a suspicion of the occurrence of subarachnoid hemorrhage - the ingress of blood between the membranes of the brain, or to determine the degree of brain damage.
It is advisable to put the victim in a hospital for several days after a concussion so that he is under constant medical supervision.
But if there is no possibility, then you can carry out the treatment at home, thoroughly observing the necessary appointments:
- The baby's motor activity is limited.
- No TV or computer for a week is the minimum.
- Only light meals should be present in the diet - fatty and fried foods can provoke a gag reflex.
Only a doctor should be involved in drug treatment - no drugs should be given to children on their own, even with a slight sedative effect.
Typically, the following drugs are prescribed to treat a concussion:
- diuretics to control edema - this can be Furasemide or natural herbal remedies, depending on the severity of the general condition;
- means with potassium, to replenish its reserve in the body - Asparkam or Panagin ;
- nootropics - Piracetam , Cavinton ;
- sedatives - valerian drops, or stronger - for example, Gidazepam ;
- antihistamines - Diazolin , Citrine , Suprastin ;
- painkillers from the group of analgesics - Baralgin , Analgin ;
- remedies for treating nausea, such as Cerucal ;
- vitamins of group B.
Consequences of a concussion
Concussions in young children are not considered serious but may still cause pathological symptoms.
For example, soreness of a prolonged nature, which increases with weather fluctuations.
You may experience lethargy while performing daily household activities.
Games and activities that used to bring joy are now depressing and irritating.
All these signs disappear after a while, with the normalization of the general condition.
Children do not need additional stimulation to relieve the effects of concussions - their metabolic processes proceed with increased intensity.