What causes black & brown skin lesions? - Dr. Rasya Dixit
What are brown spots on the skin?
The body can react in different ways to a change in state due to disturbances in the work of various organic systems or the influence of external factors. In some cases, its response to adverse effects and manifestations is a change in pigmentation, the appearance of spots on the body from light to dark brown.
Why does the skin change color?
The uneven production of melanin leads to the appearance of age spots - it is synthesized by melanocytes, the cells responsible for skin color.
If unevenly colored areas of skin appear on the face, they immediately try to get rid of them. When they form on the back or in places on the body where it is not visible, they are treated quite calmly.
The tactics are wrong - skin cancer - melanoma can be masked under moles and freckles. Therefore, when fresh spots appear, it is imperative to consult about the safety of neoplasms.
The reason for the brown pigmented areas of the skin
Brown spots on the back, face, and limbs - all over the body - can form for the following reasons:
- after traumatic injuries - scars, bruises, burns - the affected skin areas can become the same color as the rest of the skin on their own, but sometimes cause a lifelong change in pigmentation;
- intense exposure to ultraviolet radiation negatively affects the quality of the skin - the body, trying to protect itself, actively produces melanin, and the tan does not always lie flat;
- hormonal disorders often lead to changes in pigmentation;
- age-related changes;
- causes the appearance of spots, taking certain medications or neglecting the recommendations given in the instructions for use of the medicinal product. Very often the instructions indicate: When taking the drug, you should avoid ultraviolet radiation. But who reads the instructions carefully?
If the adrenal glands are disrupted, light brown spots not only worsen the cosmetic appearance, but also cause significant discomfort - they flake off, causing itching.
Additional symptoms of the disease are: mood swings, tearfulness, sleep disturbance, muscle fatigue at rest and soreness after exertion.
There are many diseasesand conditions for which hyperpigmentation is a symptom.
Hyperpigmentation as a symptom of pathologies
Let's look at the most common diseases in which the skin changes color unevenly:
- Avitaminosis - the body reacts to a lack of vitamins A, C and PP.
- Brown spots on the legs are formed due to trophic disorders that are caused by insufficient blood circulation. The most common diseases that cause uneven hyperpigmentation on the legs are atherosclerosis obliterans and diabetes mellitus. Dark spots indicate vascular changes. New growths that appear on the legs are often injured - when shaving or careless movements. This increases the possibility of the neoplasm degenerating into a malignant form.
- With age-related changes, small spots of light brown color cover the surface of the skin exposed to solar radiation. Pigmented rashes are localized on the back of the hands, forearms, upper chest and neck, legs below the knees.
- An intense increase in facial pigmentation causes pregnancy. There is even a medical term - Pregnancy mask . The spots are localized under the eyes and around the mouth, on the cheeks. In summer, mask is of a darker saturated color - pale in winter. Brown spots on the face caused by pregnancy disappear 2-3 months after childbirth on their own, the condition does not require treatment.
- Dermatological disease - versicolor or pityriasis versicolor, is also characterized by this symptom. An area with sharply defined boundaries appears on the skin, which is different in color from the main skin. If the sick person is exposed to the sun, the color of the focus becomes dark brown. The foci do not rise above the surface of the body, but the structure of the epithelium on them may differ from the surrounding tissues - the skin becomes denser and may begin to peel off.
- Not very large rashes, localized in bulk, may turn out to be ordinary freckles. Their number and intensity of color increases in spring and decreases in autumn. When sunburned, the spots compare in color with the surrounding tanned skin. It is impossible to notice any discomfort when freckles appear.
- In Recklinghausen's disease or neurofibromatosis, first light brown spots with fuzzy outlines appear on the body. After a while, in the area of the appearance of pigmented areas, you can already feel the nodules that are soft to the touch - they stand out against a dark background, as they are pink. This sign indicates that the inflammatory process has already begun at the level of the bone tissue.
- Pigmented xeroderma - the disease begins with phytodermatitis, then brown spots merge with each other. The disease can cause instant malignancy, but in one of its forms - Jung's xerodermoid - it takes up to 20 years before epidermal cells degenerate into melanoma. If the sick person observes medical recommendations - avoids contact with natural ultraviolet light or artificial radiation, the rebirth can be stopped.
- Black acanthosis. First, dark, almost black spots appear in the area of natural folds, then they bulge and thicken. This condition indicates that a malignant process has already begun in the body. Thanks to such a marker, sometimes degeneration in organs or systems can be stopped at the very beginning, preventing the stage at which metastases appear.
When pigmented areas of the body appear, it is recommended to start cosmetic procedures only after a complete examination, finding out the reasons that caused the hyperpigmentation.
Treatment or elimination of age spots
If a change in the condition of the skin is caused by diseases of various etiologies, then the disease must be treated with medical means. Lightening of spots is carried out only after it has been found out that pigmentation is not dangerous for health.
Beauty salons offer the following services to even out skin color:
- moxibustion with liquid nitrogen - the superficial epithelium dies off, the new skin has no defects;
- chemical peeling - the same principle of the procedure;
- photorejuvenation - several sessions are performed in which cells that intensively produce melanin light up .
The most effective way to restore skin tone is laser therapy - a painless modern method with a minimum number of contraindications.
After salon cosmetic procedures, sunbathing is not recommended - in daylight, the skin must be covered with sunscreen to avoid relapse of the condition.
At home, skin lightening can be carried out with medication and folk methods.
Medicines with a lightening effect, in most cases, contain mercury components, so before applying them to the skin, an allergy test should be performed on the wrist.
The ingredients of homemade brightening masks are acetic acidta, lemon juice, hydrogen peroxide.
Vinegar based mask. Mix a teaspoon of undiluted 9% vinegar with honey - in the same amount and rice flour. Apply to face for 20 minutes. Rinse off with warm water.
Lemon juice is mixed in equal proportions with sour cream to brighten the skin surface. But you can just wash your face with juice every day. The method is not suitable if there are micro injuries or rashes on the body - citric acid, which is contained in lemon juice, burns.
You can whiten your skin with a cottage cheese mask - add 10 drops of hydrogen peroxide and the same amount of ammonia to 2 tablespoons of low-fat squeezed fermented milk product.
Before applying a brightening mask, peel with ground Hercules .
If once you managed to get rid of excessive hyperpigmentation, in the future you should treat the sun's rays with caution. Problem areas under the influence of ultraviolet light may darken again.