Understanding fibroids and abnormal uterine bleeding
Uterine bleeding is dangerous!
Many female diseases are characterized by symptoms such as uterine bleeding . This condition requires immediate medical attention because it is life-threatening and can be fatal. It is quite difficult to stop blood loss due to the variety of reasons it could be caused.
The uterus consists of several layers: perimetry, myometrium and endometrium. The last layer, the endometrium, consists of two balls: the main one and the functional one. Rejection of the functional layer of the endometrium is called menstruation.
But due to a malfunction in the hormonal system of the body, part of it may remain inside along with the dilated vessels and glands that begin to bleed. In medicine, this condition is called dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
There are a large number of reasons that provoke uterine bleeding, but to simplify medical diagnosis and simplify understanding, they were divided into two categories: non-genital (disorders in the organs and systems of the body) and genital (pathology of the genital area).
The first type includes:
- Infections (measles, FLU, sepsis, typhoid fever);
- Diseases of the blood (hemophilia, hemorrhagic vasculitis, lack of vitamin C, K, etc.);
- Disorders in the cardiovascular system (atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, etc.);
- Disruptions in the functioning of the thyroid gland.
Second category causes of uterine bleeding:
- Dyscirculatory uterine bleeding (during puberty, puberty, menopause);
- Tumors of the uterus or ovaries;
- Infectious and inflammatory pathologies (cervicitis, erosion, endocervicosis, vaginitis, endometritis);
- Uterine injury;
- Ovarian rupture or cyst.
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (UBH)
Normally, during menstruation, the amount of blood loss is 30-40 ml, maximum 80. With DMC - more than 100 ml. Dysfunctional bleeding can coincide with menstrual bleeding (heavy and prolonged) or disappear regardless of them (varying intensity and regularity).
DMC are often observed in women of reproductive age 30-40 years. The main cause of the pathology is hormonal imbalance , expressed in disruption of the ovulation process, when the endometrium is not completely rejected.
Often, DMCs are quite abundant, since hormonal disorders decrease the function of platelets (cells of the coagulation system), as a result of which the blood becomes thinner.
A large number of reasons can lead to hormone imbalance:
- In puberty, from 12 to 18 years of age: infections (acute, chronic), hypovitaminosis, physical stress, mental trauma;
- At reproductive age: stress, complicated childbirth and abortion, disruption of the endocrine glands, inflammation of the genital organs;
- With menopause: acute / chronic infections, neuropsychiatric trauma.
However, it should be noted that DMC often appear due to a number of other reasons: excess weight, blood diseases, taking certain medications, strict diets, climate change. But they never occur due to pregnancy or neoplasm.
Uterine bleeding symptoms
- Dizziness, fainting, general weakness;
- Pale skin;
- Nausea, vomiting;
- Rapid or weak pulse;
- Lowering blood pressure;
- Vaginal discharge;
- Large amount of blood clots during menses. The pad or tampon gets wet quickly, you have to change them every hour or two;
- Menstruation lasts more than 7-8 days (normal 3-8);
- Bleeding after sex;
- Discharge is most often not the same as menstrual.
During puberty, they are usually prolonged, last longer than the established norm, the interval is less than 21 days, blood loss is profuse (more than 100-120 ml per day).
Bleeding that occurs after a delay in menstruation usually indicates their functional nature.
Fibroids, adenomyosis and blood diseases are characterized by cyclical and very abundant discharge.
What to do with uterine bleeding?
The first thing to do is call an ambulance. This is especially true for pregnant women and those cases when the condition worsens very quickly. Call an ambulance as soon as possible, because every minute can be crucial.
Second, he will independently consult a doctor, because only a specialist can give an adequate assessment, assessing the woman's condition and find out the reason.
The following guidelines are more focused on use in DMK.
Do not: apply warm heating pads, douche, take warm baths, use medications that contract the uterus.
How to stop uterine bleeding :
- Observe bed rest. Legs should be kept in a raised position, for example, by placing a roller or pillow under themat. This will allow blood to function in vital organs (kidney, liver, brain). With significant blood loss, it will reduce the risk of fainting, severe complications;
- Cold on the lower abdomen. This can be an ice pack wrapped in a cloth to keep out frostbite, or a heating pad filled with cold water. The ice is kept for 10-15 minutes, then a 5-minute break is taken. The manipulations are repeated for 1-2 hours. Cold constricts blood vessels, thereby reducing bleeding;
- Replenish the body's water balance. If it is not possible to put on a dropper, drinking plenty of fluids will help, for example, sweet tea, rosehip broth, water, etc. In this case, water will make up for the loss of fluid that came out with the blood. Glucose nourishes the tissues and, most importantly, the nerve cells of the brain;
- Medicines. They should be taken only after consulting a doctor or in an emergency: Dicinon (0.25 g orally 4 r / d), Calcium gluconate (1 tab. 4 r / d), Aminocaproic acid (30 ml 5 r / d), Vikasol (0.015 g 3 r / d), tincture of nettle or water pepper (100 ml 3 r / d). The above drugs increase the activity of the muscles of the uterus, however, it is not recommended to take them during pregnancy.
Some haemostatic agents used for uterine bleeding have already been listed above, for example, Aminocaproic acid, Dicinone. However, in a medical facility, they are administered either intravenously or intramuscularly. At home, these procedures are not performed. Everything should be done under the supervision of doctors and medical staff.
Hormonal medications, such as combined oral contraceptives (monophasic) or progestogens, can be used to stop blood loss. This method is suitable for nulliparous young women who are not at risk of developing endometrial tumors.
Also, hormonal agents are used when a woman was scraped for diagnostic purposes less than 3 months ago, and she did not have any pathology in the endometrium.
The second option is hemostatic drugs. In addition to the above, Tranexam is used, as well as Ascorutin to strengthen the walls of blood vessels, and to tone the uterus Ergotal and Oxytocin.
Methods of surgical stopping of bleeding are also used. The main and most effective of them is curettage of the uterine canal and the cervix. It is carried out for women of reproductive age and during menopause.
For the same purposes, cold treatment or cryodestruction is prescribed. With the help of liquid nitrogen, the upper modified layer of the uterus is destroyed. This procedure has no contraindications and gives a lasting positive result.
Ablation - removal of the endometrium with a laser, loop, ball electrode or electromagnetic energygii. The procedure is performed only for those women who are not interested in further having children.
Symptomatic treatment is also used in the complex. It is necessary to eliminate the adverse effects caused by large blood loss. For example, a woman may be prescribed fluid therapy.
In the overwhelming majority of cases, drugs are used to treat anemia. If anemia is very pronounced, then they are injected intramuscularly, in other cases the funds are taken orally.
When stress, improper lifestyle, emotional upheavals are the cause of uterine bleeding, then sedative treatment may be necessary. Take care of yourself and stay healthy!