Toxic Shock Syndrome: Way Beyond Tampons
Toxic shock syndrome
This serious illness from the polysystemic group has an acute onset and requires immediate medical attention. It is rare, threatens not only health, but also life - it blocks the functions of the liver, respiratory, cardiovascular and urinary systems. The first signs of the disease are the appearance of high fever, drop in pressure, vomiting, diarrhea and multiple skin rashes.
Toxic shock syndrome occurs when pathogenic flora of various groups is introduced into the body - group A streptococcus or staphylococcus. During their life, they constantly produce toxins. If the immune response to the introduction of negative microorganisms is overly expressed, then symptoms of toxic shock syndrome appear. The signs of shock during the introduction of microflora of different species differ from each other.
Contact of the body with streptococci and the immune reaction manifests itself in the form of complications to the transferred flu or chickenpox, after difficult childbirth and operations, but the introduction can provoke small microtrauma - bruises - which do not even cause a violation of the integrity of the skin surface.
Staphylococcal syndrome is caused by contact with a dressing that is applied to open wounds. Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome is classified as menstrual and non-menstrual - in the first case it is caused by surgical dressings, in the second - the use of intravaginal tampons.
Signs of the disease can be divided into primary and secondary.
Primary, most acute:
- muscle spasms;
- acute stomach pain and headache attacks;
- temperature rise above febrile values;
- vomiting and diarrhea;
Consciousness, rapid or slow heartbeat may occur.
In some places of the body, the skin turns red, the oral mucosa swells. If the shock is caused by an injury, severe pain is felt at the injury site.
Secondary symptoms of toxic shock:
- tissue necrosis, localized in certain areas;
- dysfunctions of the urinary and respiratory systems.
With streptococcal non-menstrual toxic shock syndrome, signs may appear after the introduction of pathogenic microorganisms for 2-5 days, but the incubation periodcan sometimes reach 10-12 days.
Such a picture is possible after a difficult birth or an operation that - at first glance - proceeded without complications.
Symptoms of tampon toxic shock syndrome appear 3-5 days after the onset of menstruation and increase dramatically.
The same symptoms in non-menstrual shock appear after surgery no later than 12 hours later.
Diagnosis and treatment of the disease
Drug therapy for toxic shock syndrome begins before the laboratory results are obtained - the diagnosis is made based on the symptoms. If you wait for confirmation of the disease, the patient can no longer be saved.
However, tests are still taken in order to accurately identify the pathogen and to clarify the purpose of medications - therapy should be precisely aimed at the targeted destruction of pathogenic flora that has invaded the body.
The following types of analyzes are required:
- detailed complete blood count;
- tank. culture of blood and urine to identify the type of pathogenic flora;
- X-ray for respiratory distress syndrome;
- blood tests from a vein to detect concomitant infections.
If you suspect that toxic shock syndrome is caused by the use of tampons, a vaginal swab is taken, in case of non-menstrual syndrome - a sample of fluid or tissue from an infected surface.
Since the onset of the disease is quite acute and poses a threat to the patient's life, after hospitalization, measures are immediately taken for intensive care - the volume of plasma in the body is restored using a dropper. It is impossible to save the patient without hospitalization - if respiratory failure develops, lung intubation may be required.
Treatment for toxic shock syndrome is carried out as follows:
- The source of infection is removed. All bandages are removed, tampons are removed;
- The surface of the wound or skin is cleaned at the site of possible infection. Most often, this procedure is carried out under local anesthesia - dead or infected inflamed tissue may need to be removed promptly;
Usually, after elimination of the source of infection, the patient's condition begins to improve.
- Treatment of complications caused by toxic shock begins - therapeutic measures depend on their manifestations;
- Antibiotics are definitely used - each type of pathogenic flora needs its own group of antibacterial drugs. Antibiotic therapy is specified after laboratory isolation of the strain;
- To normalize pressure, drugs are necessarily used - at low pressure, organic systems cannot function in the required volume;
- In the case when after enteringWith antibiotics, the patient's condition does not improve, and immunoglobulin administration may be required. It stimulates the body to produce antibodies that aid in self-healing.
An instant response is required from medical workers - streptococcal toxic shock syndrome leads to death in 50% of cases. Its complications are extremely serious: sepsis or necrotizing fasciitis, a disease that destroys the skin.
In this case, it is necessary to resort to surgical intervention to completely remove the implantation area.
Staphylococcal syndrome is less dangerous, death is recorded only in 5% of infections.
Even if the patient's condition has returned to normal, the therapeutic course of antibiotics should be carried out in full - toxic shock syndrome can recur. With relief of serious complications and proper treatment, patients recover within 10-12 days after the start of intensive therapy.
Prevention of toxic shock syndrome
In order to prevent the occurrence of a dangerous condition, it is necessary to take certain measures.
All wounds and injuries of the skin surface should be treated with antiseptic agents, so that injuries are not combed. The risk of infection can be completely eliminated by applying sterile dressings if the wound is bleeding.
Skin wounds include:
- hematomas from bruises;
- postoperative sutures in the healing phase;
- insect and animal bites;
- papules from chickenpox, scarlet fever and measles.
A woman in the postpartum period has an increased risk of toxic shock syndrome if her family members are sick with sore throat or have an exacerbation of chronic tonsillitis. In this case, she needs quarantine conditions.
After childbirth, only sanitary napkins are used to contain bloody discharge - lochia. Switch to more reliable methods of protection - tampons - when menstruation appears, only when 4-6 months have passed since the birth of the baby.
When using intravaginal contraceptives and tampons, the following rules must be observed:
- Diaphragms and contraceptive sponges should not be left in the vagina for more than 8-12 hours;
- It is advisable not to use tampons for more than 16 hours a day, they need to be changed at least after 6-8 hours.
When inserting or removing tampons or contraceptives, hands must be thoroughly washed with soap or an antiseptic - wet wipes are currently sold at any kiosk.
If toxic shock syndrome has already been diagnosed, then you need to completely abandon the use of tampons and barrier contraceptives, which are locatedagony inside the body.
When carrying out therapeutic measures, you should warn the doctor about the impossibility of using medicinal components applied to a gauze swab.
It is optimal to use tampons during the daytime, and use pads at night. This alternation will help avoid a dangerous condition.
If threatening symptoms appear: spasmodic headache on the background of nausea, diarrhea, fever - you should immediately call the emergency room ambulance .
The development of toxic shock occurs at lightning speed - if you do not immediately take the necessary measures, then after a disorder of consciousness, you will not be able to help yourself by calling a medical team.