Feline Idiopathic Cystitis - Plain and Simple
Symptoms of urolithiasis in cats and cats
Urolithiasis in cats is one of the most common diseases. Concrements (stones) are localized in the renal pelvis, ureters or bladder.
Looking for the reason
Diseases of the urinary tract do not always indicate that stones are formed. Lower part pathologies can be explained by a number of other ailments, for example, cystitis.
What can cause the disease:
- Excess dietary magnesium and phosphorus;
- Inflammation of the kidneys and urinary tract;
- Congenital or acquired pathologies leading to metabolic disorders in the kidneys;
- Poor drinking water composition;
- Lack of water supply.
Infectious cystitis in cats is very rare, but idiopathic cystitis is very common. There are a lot of factors provoking this disease: stress, living conditions (several cats in one house, keeping only indoors, etc.).
Nutrition plays a major role in the treatment and prevention of idiopathic cystitis. In addition, calculi in cats are not formed in the kidneys, as in humans, but in the bladder. Diet is the basis for relapse prevention. A tumor may be the cause of impaired outflow of urine.
To make an accurate diagnosis, it is necessary to pass a urine test and, after receiving the results, make a conclusion.
Factors contributing to the development of the disease in cats
- Urinary tract infections. Normally, urine is sterile, but if the pH is disturbed, harmful microorganisms actively multiply and the risk of calculus formation increases;
- Acidity of urine. Struvite stones form in alkaline urine. Therefore, animal nutrition plays an important role in this process. Urine should be acidic, but some cheap feeds alkalize it;
- Concentration of mineral substances in urine. When the animal drinks little, the urine becomes more concentrated, the salts in it crystallize.
The Burmese, Persian, Siamese, Russian Blue, Maine Coon cats are prone to urolithiasis.
The concentration of urea depends on the protein content in urine. Excess protein in food in violation of purineexchange leads to the development of uric acid urolithiasis. That is, with food, it is necessary to supply all the necessary substances to the body, but reduce the amount of protein. Vegetarian and lactic acidic diets contribute to the development of alkaline urolithiasis.
The risk of developing the disease is higher in animals: with constant keeping indoors; after sterilization / castration; obesity; improper feeding. It should be borne in mind that males get sick more often than females. In addition, struvite calculi are formed more often in young individuals (up to 4 years old), and oxalate stones - in adults (10-15 years old).
Signs of pathology
In animals, urine is very concentrated, therefore, in case of a disease of the urinary system, it causes irritation, although the organs have natural defenses. It is for this reason that urgent measures must be taken as soon as the first symptoms appear. The animal must be shown to a specialist so that he can diagnose and prescribe adequate treatment.
This disease is of great danger in cats, which is explained by the anatomy of the urethra. This organ is narrow and has a C-shaped bend, that is, the passage of sand and stones along it is very difficult. If a complete blockage occurs, kidney function is impaired, and cardiac arrest may occur.
Symptoms of the development of urolithiasis in cats:
- Frequent or no urination in small portions;
- Genitals are often licked;
- Urine that is pinkish or bloody;
- The animal is held for a long time in the urination position;
- Small puddles of urine in the wrong places. This symptom indicates incontinence;
- Poor appetite;
- Straining or signs of pain when urinating (e.g. squealing, meowing);
- Apathy, lethargy, behavioral change.
Treatment of urolithiasis in cats and cats
Antibacterial drugs (antibiotics) and anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed without fail. Pheromones can be used for idiopathic cystitis.
Nutrition for urolithiasis
Stones can be dissolved by following certain Hills and RoyalCanin diets. These diets contain a lot of sodium, which stimulates thirst. Therefore, the animal will drink more. Drinking large amounts of water results in dilute urine, which means it is no longer concentrated. This condition is necessary for the dissolution of calculi. It also restricts phosphorus and magnesium and acidifies urine.
For struvite formations, milk, cheese, cottage cheese, egg yolks, yolks, and other foods rich in calcium compounds are excluded from the menu. It is recommended to introduce more boiled beef, veal, egg whites, rice, carrots, liver, cabbage, fish, oatmeal into the diet.
Formations from cystine and uric acid are dissolved by a special dietmi, which alkalinize urine. In the course of treatment, you need to constantly take urine analysis. In addition, it must be borne in mind that ready-made dry and canned food cannot be combined with homemade food. Animals should always have water in their bowl.
Oxalate stones do not dissolve, so there is only one method of their treatment - surgical. However, it is necessary to follow a diet for relapse of the disease. It is necessary to limit the liver, kidneys, oxalic acid, calcium-rich foods in the diet. Preference is given to beets, legumes, boiled meat, cabbage, cereals, fish, vegetables.
Treatment of stones and sand by other methods
Catheterization is used to remove small stones. A catheter is inserted into the urinary canal, and urine, along with pathological formations, is discharged outside.
For larger stones and urethral obstruction, a urethrostomy is used. This method consists of placing a permanent opening in the urethra. Uroliths will subsequently be removed through it. The hole made by the doctor should not be overgrown until the animal is well.
Cystotomy is the most traumatic type of surgical intervention. The operation involves opening the cavity of the bladder and removing the formations in this way. Usually the need for such an event arises only when calculi reach especially large sizes and cannot be removed by less radical methods.
Treatment of pathology should be comprehensive and necessarily include correction and support for the work of other systems and organs. It is necessary to eliminate the symptoms of intoxication, replenish fluid loss, monitor the functions of the heart and kidneys, and prevent hypothermia. For this purpose, the doctor prescribes adequate infusion therapy (droppers), which should be combined with regular examinations of blood, urine and heart function.
In some animals, the disease can occur only once in a lifetime, while in others it can constantly recur. Therefore, you need to adhere to certain rules so that the pet is completely cured and does not suffer anymore. For example, if an animal has had urinary calculi, you should not change its diet without first consulting a doctor.
It is impossible to stop the course of treatment ahead of time, even if the owner thinks that the animal is already well. Crystals can form again, even in a pet that looks quite healthy.
Urination must be controlled, delays must not be allowed. The daily ration should be divided into several portions. This will avoid fluctuations in urine pH.
The animal should always have fresh water in the bowl.
Health to your pets!