Diabetes mellitus - Symptoms, Complication, Pathology of Type 1 and Type 2, Animation
Symptoms of diabetes mellitus: signs of different types of disease
Diabetes mellitus is a rather dangerous disease, as it can lead to damage to capillaries and blood vessels, dysfunction of individual organs and systems. The disease is often complicated by cataracts, which can lead to blindness. In severe cases, the chronic form leads to renal failure, impotence, trophic ulcers on the feet, gangrene.
Pathology can be accompanied by neuropathy: painful sensations in the lower extremities, which later turn into loss of sensitivity. Diabetes often leads to liver cirrhosis.
Symptoms of diabetes mellitus in women
The disease is divided into two types, each of which has main and indirect symptoms.
The main symptoms include: a constant feeling of thirst; frequent urination; weight loss; rapid fatigability, general weakness; dizziness; heaviness in the legs; blurred vision; when the condition worsens, the smell of acetone from the mouth occurs.
Indirect symptoms of developing diabetes mellitus:
- infectious diseases respond poorly to treatment, therapy is delayed due to low immunity;
- prolonged healing of wounds;
- low temperature;
- cramps in the calf muscles.
It should be noted that in women the symptoms are less pronounced than in men, which is explained by the special structure of the hormonal system and the presence of female sex hormones.
An urgent need to consult an endocrinologist if the following conditions appear:
- rapid weight gain or loss;
- increased drinking without swelling in the morning;
- increase or loss of appetite;
- menstrual irregularities;
- pigmentation of the face and hands;
- brittle hair and nails;
- acetone breath;
- dizziness, weakness.
This disease does not occur suddenly. Initially, glucose tolerance fails. Then, insulin deficiency develops in the body. Only then do the symptoms of the disease appear.
It should be borne in mind that a similar clinical picture is inherent in many other pathologies, so it is important to regularly take a blood sugar test. If there is a slight increase in glucose levels, they speak of a violation of tolerance - a condition precedingm diabetes. This phenomenon is considered reversible, so efforts must be made to prevent the development of pathology.
Symptoms of diabetes in children
As a rule, signs of ailment in babies develop quite quickly - over several weeks. If parents have any suspicions, you need to take a blood glucose test or measure fasting and after meals with a glucometer. You should not ignore the signs, since it was already mentioned above that pathology leads to serious consequences in the absence of treatment.
Signs of pathology in children:
- With the development of type 1 diabetes, babies are constantly thirsty, because the body, when glucose levels are high, sucks water out of cells to dilute blood sugar. Parents may notice that children start drinking a lot of water, tea and sugary drinks;
- Frequent urination is due to excessive drinking. A student can go to the toilet several times from lessons, which will attract the attention of teachers and classmates. In addition, he can write at night, that is, during sleep;
- Rapid weight loss. The body will use sugar as an energy source, thus burning muscle and fat. The child will not grow and get better, but, on the contrary, grow weak and lose weight. Weight loss is usually sudden and fairly rapid;
- Chronic fatigue. The baby becomes lethargic, weak, which is explained by a lack of insulin and, accordingly, the inability to convert glucose into energy. Internal organs and tissues suffering from sugar deficiency send alarming signals, which manifests itself in chronic fatigue;
- The first type of diabetes is accompanied by a strong feeling of hunger. The body cannot normally absorb food and be satisfied, so a sick person remains hungry despite a good appetite. But it happens that the latter disappears altogether - this is a symptom of diabetic ketoacidosis - a pathological condition that poses a threat to life;
- Violations of the visual system. Increased sugar levels cause dehydration of the entire body, including the lens of the eye. This condition is manifested by blurred vision and other disorders. But young children do not pay attention to this, because they do not know what is normal and what is not;
- Fungal infections. Very often, girls develop thrush against the background of diabetes. In infants, such diseases provoke severe diaper rash. When blood sugar returns to normal, these conditions are easily remedied;
- Diabetic ketoacidosis. Symptoms of this condition include nausea, rapid but intermittent breathing, abdominal pain, and acetone breath. Ketoacidosis requires urgent medical attention or will be fatal in the short term.
Unfortunately, quite often parents do not pay attention to the signs listed above, and children go to doctorsonly with the development of ketoacidosis. If you pay more attention to the health of children, you can avoid the serious consequences of the disease.
It is recommended to consult a doctor even if one of the above signs is present. This will prevent the progression of the pathology. Children at risk should regularly donate blood for sugar.
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes
This stage of the disease does not develop so rapidly, as a rule, over several years. Most often, progressive pathology is found in older and elderly people. Patients are often unaware of their disease.
The clinical picture looks like this:
- Serious memory problems;
- Chronic fatigue;
- Poor vision;
- Skin problems: frequent fungal infections, itching, lesions do not heal well;
- Thirst - a person drinks up to 5 liters of liquid per day;
- Frequent urination at night;
- Numbness, tingling in the lower extremities, pain while walking, ulcers on the feet and legs;
- Thrush in women, difficult to treat;
- With the progression of pathology, weight loss without diet;
- Kidney disease, loss of vision, sudden stroke, heart attack.
If a person is obese, gets tired quickly, his skin lesions heal poorly, vision and memory deteriorate, you need to check the blood for sugar. In case of deviation from the norm, they immediately begin treatment, otherwise there is a threat to life. Without therapy, diabetes leads to blindness, kidney failure, ulcers and gangrene, heart attack and stroke.
Symptoms of latent (latent) diabetes mellitus
The peculiarity of this form is its asymptomatic course. Sick people do not feel any discomfort, do not suffer from unpleasant manifestations of the disease. Only a glucose tolerance test can detect this form. Indicators of more than 120 mg on an empty stomach and 200 mg after a meal indicate a latent course of the disease.
However, there are indirect signs and symptoms of latent diabetes mellitus, for example, vascular pathology. Patients have a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular pathologies. Sometimes diabetes is only discovered after a heart attack or stroke. Sick people are at high risk of developing heart failure. The first warning signs are vision and nervous system problems.
If diabetes is suspected, a blood test is taken on an empty stomach, but such a study will not detect the presence of a latent disease.
Therefore, after the analysis on an empty stomach, a person is given to drink 75 g of glucose, eat a sweet bun, and then re-analyze. In a healthy person, the indicators will return to normal, while in the patient they will remain elevated. If there are any abnormalities, treatment should be started immediately.
It is worth noting that often hiddenThe first type is found in women with polycystic ovary disease. Risk factors include a deficiency of potassium in the blood, aggravated heredity and obesity, hypertension. There is a high likelihood of developing pathology in women with pregnancy diabetes.
Only in half of patients with a latent form, the disease goes into the second type. If you detect the disease in time and immediately begin to relieve symptoms and eliminate its causes, you can avoid its progression.
People at risk should periodically get tested and visit an endocrinologist. When the first warning signs appear, you need to go to the doctor and get tested.