Staphylococcus aureus - Diseases, Clinical Presentation, Virulence Factors, Diagnosis & Treatment
Staphylococcus aureus: impact on children
The younger the child, the more dangerous a staphylococcal infection is for him. When microorganisms enter the body, they provoke inflammatory processes and destroy the cellular structure of healthy tissue, the products of their vital activity - hemolysins - kill leukocytes and the body is left without protection against the introduction of viruses and bacteria of other types.
In children, staphylococcus aureus causes serious damage to the skin, lymphatic tissue and nervous system, in a newborn child, pathogenic flora can cause death.
Types of staphylococcus
The following types of pathogenic flora are most common.
- Saprophytic staphylococcus. It mainly affects the genitourinary system, penetrating into the mucous membranes from the outside;
- Epidermal Staphylococcus aureus. Conditionally pathogenic flora is found on the surface of the body and mucous membranes of the nose and internal pharynx. Dangerous for children with a reduced immune status - premature or after surgery. A healthy body can resist the development of microorganisms on its own;
- Staphylococcus aureus. It is still considered the most dangerous of the known cultures of microorganisms. Inhabits the surface of the skin, is sown in feces and urine, throat swab. It destroys phagocytes - immune cells that dissolve infectious agents. A dangerous feature of the disease caused by this culture is increased antibiotic resistance.
Hospital-acquired infections have already claimed many lives of infants.
Introduction of Staphylococcus aureus into the body
Staphylococcus aureus in the throat of a child most often appears during contact with a respiratory-type infection - a sick person, when talking, coughing and sneezing, releases thousands of pathogens. The infection also spreads through household items and food.
Since the role of gatekeepers in the body is played by the tonsils - they consist of lymphoid tissue and try to neutralize penetrating pathogens - the pathogenic flora develops there. With favorable factors for themselves - a decrease in the immune status with hypothermia, constant fatigue, lack of sleep, a nervous environment, intoxication, vitamin deficiency - microorganisms onstart to multiply actively, reducing the general immunity.
Staphylococcal infection symptoms
Treatment of staphylococcus in the throat is not required for strong children. The body itself will cope with pathogenic microorganisms.
In weak children, the disease takes on a chronic form. On the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, on the edges of the lips and in the nose, pustules, stomatitis, manifestations of conjunctivitis constantly appear. Signs of intoxication of the body: constant weakness, lethargy, apathy, deterioration of the general condition.
When introduced into the body, the temperature rises, sepsis (blood poisoning) may develop, and the digestion process is disrupted.
Staphylococcal sore throat is also difficult to treat because the use of strong antibiotics causes severe diarrhea and intestinal colic in the child. Dysbacteriosis caused by intoxication is exacerbated by the side effect of antibacterial drugs.
The presence of a pathogenic culture is detected in the following ways.
- Sowing bacteriological culture. A throat swab is taken in an acute period - bacteria at this moment are most active and easily detected. During this sowing, at the same time, it becomes clear how to further treat staphylococcus in the nose and throat. To do this, pathogenic microorganisms are combined in a test tube with antibiotics of various types and research is carried out on which antibacterial drugs can destroy them. At the same time, bacteria are sown from a blood test.
- While microorganisms are in a dormant state, they can be detected by PCR - polymerase chain reaction. Usually this method is used to conduct additional examination. The method is very reliable - even single bacterial DNA can be detected.
- Serological analysis of blood does not emit bacteria, but antibodies to the pathogen of this type.
- In some cases, a baby gets Staphylococcus aureus in breast milk. In this case, he has a general intoxication - not only the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx becomes inflamed, but also the digestive processes are disturbed, diarrhea appears, pustules form on the skin. If infection is suspected during breastfeeding, pathogens are sown from breast milk. But since the baby is already infected, it is not required to switch to artificial nutrition. Mother and baby are given adequate treatment to correct the problem.
With an insignificant amount of bacteria or antibodies in the blood test and the baby's normal well-being, it is not required to treat him.
How to cure Staphylococcus aureus throat
The symptoms of Staphylococcus aureus infections are exactly the same as for any inflammatory process of the nasopharynx:
- tonsil swelling and redness;
- the appearance of purulent plaque of various types;
- pain, intensifyswallowing;
- enlargement of regional lymph nodes.
A distinctive feature may be the addition of bacterial stomatitis - the appearance of pustules on the mucous membrane and an increase in temperature to 39-40 ° C. After identifying the pathogen, antibacterial drugs are prescribed, which must be drunk completely - even after the signs of inflammation disappear.
The following drugs are most often prescribed: Oflocacin, Amoxiclav, Rifaximin, Nafitsillin, Clindamidicin, Neomycin, Tetracycline, Vancomycin, Kanamycin .
Antipyretic drugs are used to lower the temperature, antihistamines must be supplemented with treatment to reduce swelling and weaken the side effects of antibiotics.
The therapeutic scheme necessarily includes local treatment - rinsing the throat and treating the oral cavity with antibacterial agents. From medical devices, a solution of furacilin is recommended, Chlorhexedin, Bioparox, Chlorophyllipt , gels and sprays containing lidocaine - for example, Hexoran spray .
Treatment with painkillers helps to cope with a very difficult task - during the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus in the throat of a child it is quite difficult to feed him. Because of the pain when swallowing, children often refuse to eat, become weak.
Although doctors do not advise to stuff food into babies during acute periods, it is necessary to give a small patient a drink at a high temperature, otherwise dehydration will quickly occur. After treating the larynx with anesthetics, the sore throat and the gag reflex subsides, and it is possible to pour the necessary liquid into the baby.
In addition, immunomodulators and immunity stimulants, vitamin therapy are prescribed.
If the condition is extremely serious, the patient is admitted to a hospital.
Traditional medicine cannot cope with the infection completely, but it is possible to cure a small patient faster when using folk remedies. Inflamed tissues of the oral cavity are lubricated with sea buckthorn and rosehip oils, honey - if the baby does not have allergies, irrigate with anti-inflammatory infusions - decoction of chamomile, oak bark, sage, calendula.
You need to be very careful about the choice of raw materials for anti-inflammatory infusions. Chamomile is introduced into the therapeutic regimen no earlier than 3 months of age, the rest after 8-12 months.
Prevention of infection
Any infection is easier to prevent than to cure later. In order to prevent infection of the baby, adults should use protective equipment at home - masks - during an exacerbation of chronic diseases. Many people neglect wearing them, even coughing and sneezing.
Negative factors that weaken the child's body:
- neglect of personal hygiene rules;
- the wrong diet;
- low life activity - the child does not move enough, they hardly walk with him in the fresh air;
- room pollution;
- unfavorable living conditions - high room humidity;
- constant stressful situations, unfavorable family environment.
With proper care of the child, his immune status does not decrease, and he is able to resist the staphylococcal flora. If exacerbations do not occur, there is no need to treat the baby's throat - even if this bacteria is constantly sown - it is not necessary.