Cervical Polyps - Gynecology for Medical Students
Polyps of the cervix
Cervical polyps - this is a pathology in which the internal tissues of the uterus grow, and mushroom-like protrusions on the leg or with a wide flat base form on the mucous membrane, one or more are polyps.
This disease, as a rule, is initiated by various hormonal disorders. Among the risk factors are inflammation in the genitals. For example, salpingo-oophoritis, endometritis, abortions, etc. can contribute to this disease.
The causes of a polyp are various hormonal disorders, both in the reproductive system and beyond.
The reason for the development of the disease may be an imbalance of estrogens, leading to increased formation of outgrowths on the inner walls of the uterus, or problems with thyroid hormones. In addition, the causes of pathology can be a decrease in immunity, or be a consequence of abortion or diagnostic curettage.
Types of polyps
The classification of polyps is as follows:
- Endometrial polyps - are located directly in the uterine cavity. Polyps in the cervical canal are located in the lumen of the canal;
- Glandular - pathological growths of internal glandular tissues of the uterus;
- Glandular fibrous - fibrous tissues are attached to the cells of the endometrium;
- Fibrous - contain mainly fibrous (connective) tissue, and a very small number of endometrial cells directly. It occurs in women over forty;
- Adenomatous - neoplasms with a high risk of degeneration into a cancerous tumor.
Symptoms of the disease
Symptoms of a polyp in the cervical canal of the cervix:
- Bleeding after the end of menstruation;
- Spotting mid-cycle;
- Pain in the suprapubic region - typical of large polyps;
- Pain during sex;
- Bloody bleeding after sex;
Symptoms for small-sized polyps of the cervical canal are absent.
If you have after the onsetAfter menopause, with a prolonged absence of menopause, spotting appeared, this may be a sign of polyp formation.
Go to examination by a gynecologist regardless of whether your discharge is meager or abundant, as it can cause it not only a polyp, but also cancerous processes in the body.
To diagnose these neoplasms, the following examination methods are used:
- Examination of the vaginal part of the cervix using mirrors;
- Ultrasound examination of the uterus and appendages;
- X-ray examination with contrast media;
- Hysteroscopy is a study with a special optical device, which is carried out directly in the uterine cavity.
A gynecologist can detect a polyp of the cervical canal gaping from the cervix. And neoplasms located in the uterine part of the neck cannot be detected by a simple examination. For this, the above research methods are used.
Hysteroscopy is the most informative method for diagnosing this type of neoplasm. With a hysteroscope, the doctor examines the uterine cavity, detects neoplasms, if any, measures their size and number. Then a biopsy of the endometrium is taken for examination under a microscope, which allows differentiation of a polyp and a cancerous tumor.
In some cases (with single small neoplasms), it is possible to remove the polyp with a hysteroscope.
The tactics of treatment depends on the results of a cytological study of a biopsy, the woman's age, her hormonal status and the desire to have children in the future. Treatment of a polyp on the walls of the cervical canal involves surgical intervention. Polypectomy - removal of a polyp located in the canal of the cervix or its uterine part.
It is carried out using a hysteroscope, which reflects the features of the cervical canal and the cavity of the uterus itself, as well as the entire course of the operation on the screen.
With re-formation (relapse), treatment involves curettage of the uterine cavity, that is, its curettage. This is the mechanical removal of the endometrial layer. This operation is performed under general anesthesia. After performing curettage, the patient should be followed up for a long time by a gynecologist, as polyps tend to recur, especially if no cause is found.
Often, the postoperative period is accompanied by the intake of hormonal drugs to normalize their hormonal levels.
In the case when a polyp of the cervical canal or cervix of the uterus recurs against the background of menstrual irregularities, the patient receives hormonal therapy in the form of oral contraceptives or pills, less often - injection hormones.
It is contraindicated to perform polypectomy with active inflammation.tel processes such as chlamydia, mycoplasmosis, candidiasis, as well as sexually transmitted diseases and infections transmitted during sexual intercourse. A cervical polyp discovered during pregnancy should never be removed.
He cannot influence the course of pregnancy, and with the restoration of hormonal levels after childbirth, it may disappear on its own. But if pregnancy does not occur with a prolonged absence of contraception, then it is necessary to be examined and make sure that polyps in the uterine cavity are not the cause of infertility.
In case of malignant transformations, an operation to remove the uterus is recommended. The appendages and the vagina are removed depending on the penetration of the tumor or metastases in them.
Having found the symptoms of the disease in yourself, do not waste precious time on treatment with folk methods and do not hope that our folk may pass by itself. This pathology can only be treated with surgical methods.
Polyps without adequate treatment are highly likely to degenerate into cancerous growths. Do not delay your visit to the doctor!