Neck Mass: Swollen Lymph Node
Neck swelling: what could it be?
A swelling in the neck can appear for various reasons. Some neoplasms arise as a result of blockage of the sebaceous glands, others are manifestations of a dangerous oncological disease. In order not to worry in vain and start treatment on time, if you find a tumor on your neck, you should immediately consult a doctor.
Types of neoplasms on the neck
The medical classification of neoplasms divides them according to their clinical manifestation:
- Benign - growing slowly, rarely painful, no metastases.
- Malignant - aggressive formations are characterized by accelerated growth, penetration of metastases to other organs and relapses.
Tumors of the head and neck by localization can be located in the epithelium, in connective or nervous tissue, in organs (larynx, lymph nodes).
Education can manifest itself as a result of thyroid pathology. Organ dysfunction occurs when hormone production is disrupted. Thyroid growth can occur in children and adults. The increase in size is determined visually and by touch. In a normal state, the organ is felt.
Benign neoplasms on the neck include:
- Lipoma - a tumor occurs deep in the adipose tissue, as a result of a malfunction of the sebaceous gland. The lump under the skin is clearly visible, it is soft and mobile. The neoplasm does not cause discomfort, but it can grow to a large size. This harmless lump can develop into oncology over time, so the doctor is advised to remove it surgically.
- The human papillomavirus causes the formation of tumors from epithelial cells. It has a dark brown to pink color and a rough surface. The diameter of the papilloma can be 1 cm, it protrudes noticeably above the skin surface. Outwardly, the papilloma looks like a small growth with a thin leg, it does not cause concern. Removed at the request of the patient for cosmetic purposes.
- Fibroma - localized on the lateral parts of the neck - on the right or left. It grows from connective tissue and is divided into two types: nodular and diffuse. The nodular form is located under the skin, the diffuse one does not have a capsule and grows outward. If neoplasms are detected, they are immediately removed, and treatment may require a course of radiation therapy.
- Neurinoma - this formis less common than the above pathologies. It has the form of a dense knot of round or irregular shape, characterized by pain when pressed. If neuroma is suspected, a biopsy is done, and if the diagnosis is confirmed, surgery is performed.
Malignant tumors on the neck in Depending on the lesion, several types of cancer may be indicative of:
Pathology affects the tongue, oral cavity, pharyngeal walls, metastases spread to other organs.
The appearance and accompanying symptoms of a neck mass depend on its nature.
The phenomena accompanying cancer include:
- trouble swallowing food;
- swelling of the neck and face;
- pain at the site of the neoplasm;
- hoarseness, voice change.
Swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck is manifested by the following symptoms:
- visually and upon palpation, an increase in the size of the organ is noted;
- knots are soft;
- moderate to severe soreness when pressed;
- there may be local redness of the lymph nodes;
- the temperature rises.
- if the lymph nodes are stiff to the touch, this may lead to suspicion of cancer.
During the examination, the doctor details the manifestations of the pathology that has arisen. Several aspects are important for the diagnosis:
- localization of the tumor on the neck (right, left, back);
- number of neoplasms;
- consistency (soft or hard).
Causes of a tumor on the neck
The primary diagnosis of pathology can be carried out by determining the localization of the neoplasm.
A lump at the bottom of the neck above the collarbone is an enlargement of the lymph nodes, which may be a reaction to a bacterial or viral infection in the body. The symptoms of inflammation and the growth of lymph nodes in this area indicates the presence of parasites or cancer of the blood: leukemia, lymphoma.
Cancer can affect the organ itself. This is an oncology of lymph nodes - lymphosarcoma, requiring complex treatment.
A tumor of the neck on the right causes various pathologies, it can be a symptom:
- venereal disease;
- measles in children;
- HIV infection;
One of the main causes of neck cancer, doctors call the carcinogenic effects of tobacco smoke when smoking or passive inhalation.
Other factors include:
- excessive alcohol consumption;
- work in hazardous production;
- infectious disease;
- radiation to remove facial hair or acne;
- poor oral hygiene;
- frequent consumption of mate or hot food.
Diagnostics and treatment options
Determine the nature of the tumor is possible only with a serious study. Patients are assigned:
- organ ultrasound;
- tumor biopsy;
- complete blood count;
- tumor markers;
- neoplasm histology;
- computed tomography.
The doctor carefully analyzes the symptoms and clinical picture of the disease. If the swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck is caused by an inflammatory process in the body, then antibacterial drugs are prescribed, this can be Amoxicillin or Tsiprolet.
Inflammation of the lymph nodes often occurs in children, it is caused by colds and SARS. In such a situation, the pediatrician prescribes drugs that strengthen the immune system.
Benign neoplasms are not treated conservatively, their appearance requires surgical intervention.
The main methods of treatment for malignant neck tumors include:
- surgical intervention;
- radiation therapy;
- combination of methods.
Cancer treatment methods depend on its stage. The use of radiation therapy slows down the development of metastases, reduces the number of relapses, and reduces the percentage of cancer deaths.
For small TI-T2 lesions, a high dose of radiation can be used with minimal risk of tissue dysfunction. In the treatment of moderate stage 2-3 tumors, the radiation dose is reduced due to the need to irradiate large volumes.
A malignant tumor growing outward is better treated than other forms. When cancer is localized in bone, muscle or cartilage tissue, the percentage of patients who recovered is extremely small.
If a neoplasm touches a nerve, then the situation is complicated by the patient's paralysis. At stages 1-2, radiation therapy for head and neck tumors is most effective. In difficult cases, surgery is indispensable. Chemotherapy is prescribed for advanced cancer.
Any cancer therapy has many side effects. Patients feel worse, the swallowing process is impaired, hair falls out, and a decrease in immunity is observed. After the end of the course of treatment, these unpleasant consequences disappear.
Prevention of complications
No specialist will give unequivocal recommendations for the prevention of a malignant neck tumor. There are no clear ideas about the mechanism of cancer in this part of the body. In order to prevent an advanced form of a tumor, it is necessary to consult a doctor in a timely manner if even a small lump or swelling on the neck is detected.
As a preventive measure it is proposed:
- quitting smoking and drinking alcohol in large quantities;
- use of protection in production with toxic substances;
- complete treatment of infectious diseases.
When a tumor appears on the neck, no matter on the left or on the right, you should not wait for it toma will disappear. Check its nature for your own health safety.