Uterine fibroid - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology
Myoma of the uterus
One of the most common gynecological diseases is uterine myoma - a benign tumor that develops on the uterine cervix or uterine walls and consists mainly of connective tissue.
Most often women over 35 years old are exposed to this disease, but recently there has been a tendency to the development of pathology in younger women.
Types uterine fibroids
Depending on the location, there are several types of fibroids:
- Subserous - the location of the tumor in this case is on the outer uterine surface, under the membrane that separates the uterus from other organs;
- Submucous - the tumor is located under the mucous membrane and protrudes into the uterine lumen;
- Interstitial - the tumor forms in the muscle thickness of the uterus.
Uterine fibroids come in various sizes, ranging from a couple of millimeters to a few centimeters.
The description of the size of the tumor is usually carried out by analogy with the increase in the size of the uterus during pregnancy: 8 weeks, 16 weeks, etc. Most often, a woman simultaneously develops not one myoma, but several at once.
Causes of the disease
The formation and further growth of uterine fibroids directly depend on the level of estrogen in the woman's body. With hormonal imbalances, menstruation may be delayed or menstruation is too heavy.
The lack of a regular sex life can also lead to a violation of the ratio of hormones.
That is why, very often, fibroids that have arisen in a young woman go away by themselves after menopause, when female sex hormones begin to be produced in smaller quantities.
- Other factors that can lead to tumor formation include:
- Mechanical injuries resulting from abortion, childbirth and curettage of the uterus;
- Hereditary predisposition;
- The presence of concomitant diseases: diabetes mellitus, obesity, thyroid pathology, etc .;
- Sedentary lifestyle.
How uterine fibroids are manifested
In most cases, the disease can only be diagnosed if gynecological examination , since this disease proceeds without any pronounced symptoms. Most often, signs of pathology are manifested in sumbucous myoma.
A woman should be alerted to the following symptoms of uterine fibroids:
- Menorrhagias (prolonged and heavy periods);
- Non-period bleeding;
- General malaise, characterized by weakness and pallor of the skin (due to a decrease in hemoglobin levels);
- Pain in the lower back and lower abdomen;
- Disorders in the work of nearby organs arising from their compression: organs of the gastrointestinal tract and urinary tract;
- Constipation and difficulty urinating due to the symptom described above;
- Reproductive dysfunction - infertility.
If one or more of the symptoms described above is found, women are strongly advised to consult a specialist for examination and finding out the causes of such symptoms.
Uterine fibroids and pregnancy
Since this pathology is often diagnosed in pregnant women, a natural question arises: how does uterine fibroids affect the course of pregnancy?
Unfortunately, such a disease can be fraught with rather serious complications, which are caused by the large size of the tumor and its unfavorable location. In addition, the reasons that caused fibroids can have a negative effect on the body of a pregnant woman.
Fibroids during pregnancy are usually accompanied by fetoplacental insufficiency, in addition, there is a real threat of miscarriage. The most dangerous for the fetus is the situation when the node is located in the immediate vicinity of the placenta, because at the same time its structure and functions are disturbed, respectively, the child does not receive enough oxygen. This situation can lead to placental abruption, accompanied by bleeding.
According to some experts, it is during pregnancy that an especially intensive growth of myomatic nodes is observed. Other doctors tend to believe that this is due to an increase in the size of the uterus. A serious threat to the expectant mother and fetus may appear with tumor degeneration, because in this case tissue necrosis occurs, which leads to bleeding, edema and the formation of cysts.
However, uterine fibroids and pregnancy may well coexist subject to constant medical supervision. With small nodes, the pregnancy period proceeds without complications.
In the first trimester of pregnancy, complications can occur if the fibroid comes into contact with the placenta.
In addition, there may be a threat of miscarriage due to the fact that the uterus begins to contract.
In the later stages of pregnancy, the likelihood of prematuredelivery, because rapidly growing nodes do not leave enough space for the fetus. If the mass is very large, the child may be injured and be born, for example, with a deformed skull or underweight.
Treatment of uterine fibroids
Quite often, uterine fibroids respond to conservative treatment, the purpose of which is to stop the growth of the node and reduce its size.
Treatment without surgery for uterine fibroids is usually prescribed when:
- Small tumor;
- Interstitial and subserous myomas;
- Absence of pronounced symptoms and pain syndrome;
- Contraindications to surgery.
The basis of non-surgical treatment is hormonal therapy, in which a woman is prescribed drugs derivatives of androgens, gestagens, hormonal contraceptives, etc.
Sometimes, treatment with folk remedies for uterine fibroids can give good results, provided an integrated approach to the problem and consultation with your doctor.
First of all, a woman needs to pay attention to her lifestyle and diet.
Many traditional healers advise using herbal infusions for this disease, such as nettle, hawthorn, celandine, mint. If conservative methods of treatment have not yielded results, an operation is prescribed. The technique is chosen depending on the patient's condition and her physical characteristics.
Thus, the doctor can prescribe the following types of operations:
- Myomectomy - exfoliation of myomatic nodes;
- Hysteroresectoscopy - removal of the tumor, performed with the submucous location of the nodes;
- Hysterectomy - organ amputation;
- Uterine artery embolization is a minimally invasive operation and is suitable for women who want to preserve their reproductive function.
The most optimal is a combined method of treatment, when after the operation the doctor prescribes hormonal drugs to prevent relapse.
This tactic does not apply to hysterectomy.