Lower Abdominal Pain - Common Causes & Symptoms
Lower abdominal pain
Pain in the lower abdomen is a non-specific symptom of many diseases of the abdominal and pelvic organs. They arise during irritation of the sensitive nerve endings of organs located in the small pelvis, and in the outer shell of the organs - serosa.
Less commonly, pain is a sign of muscle spasm, as a response to catarrhal phenomena or an injury.
They can also be a reaction to pathology affecting the nerve trunks and peripheral nerves of the corresponding section.
Abdominal pains are divided by their intensity (weak, severe intense), by localization (left, right, along the midline of the abdomen), they can be increasing over a certain period of time or appear suddenly.
By the nature of the pain, they are divided into:
In any case, the occurrence of this symptom is an indication for going to the doctor and a complete examination. Acute intense pain in almost all cases indicates a dangerous disease, and requires urgent medical intervention.
If the patient's condition deteriorates sharply, he loses consciousness, the pulse quickens, the skin becomes pale, vomiting occurs, often mixed with blood, you should immediately call emergency medical help.
What could be the reasons?
To find out why the lower abdomen hurts, you need to contact a specialist with specific complaints and an accurate description of the pain.
If the lower abdomen hurts, we can assume the following reasons:
- Pathology of female internal genital organs of an inflammatory nature. These are endometritis, adnexitis, ovarian cysts, colpitis of various etiologies and adhesions after surgery or infectious diseases. With these diseases, a woman will change the nature of the discharge: they become bloody, purulent, abundant. Inflammation is accompanied by an increase in body temperature, changes in peripheral blood parameters;
- Pathology of the urinary system (inflammatory or dysmetabolic). This inflammation of the walls of the bladder - cystitis, pyelonephritis of various etiologies, urethritis, interstitial nephritis and gouty nephropathy, urolithiasis. Diseases of the genitourinary sphere are accompanied by a change in the indicators of urine analysis (change in color, quantity, density of urine, the appearance of a large number of leukocytes, blood impurities, salts and sediment), inflammatory signs in the analysis of peripheral blood (leukocytes and ESR are increased). Almost all diseases of the urinary organs are accompanied by pain. In this case, the lower back may hurt or a diffuse pain in the abdomen may appear. With tissue inflammationkidney often hurts the lower abdomen on one or both sides, and the lower back. The symptoms of inflammation in the organs of the urinary system also include the appearance of edema, dysuric phenomena (frequent urination, painful, in small portions, with pathological impurities);
- Chronic diseases of organs located in the small pelvis. Basically, this is the pathology of the digestive tract: chronic colitis, constipation, chronic adhesive disease, intestinal diverticulosis, as well as diseases accompanied by dysfunction of the intestinal tube (megacolon, enzyme deficiency, dysbiosis). These diseases can be suspected by concomitant symptoms: increased gas production, rumbling in the intestines, decreased appetite, a feeling of a full bowel, changes in the frequency and characteristics of stools. Pain in the lower abdomen on the left accompanies colitis and chronic constipation, while it may increase after or during physical load;
- Acute surgical diseases. First of all, it is acute appendicitis. Other reasons may be: diverticulitis (inflammation of the walls of Meckel's diverticulum), intestinal obstruction for various reasons, strangulated inguinal and scrotal hernias, torsion of the leg feeding the ovaries (lower abdominal pain on the left or right, lower back), ovarian cyst (rupture), bleeding that has arisen acutely as a result of perforation in places of ulcerative lesions of the intestine (nonspecific ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease), as well as in case of ectopic pregnancy in case of threat or in the event of a rupture of the fallopian tube;
- Diseases of the intestines of an infectious nature in the acute period, intoxication. Pain in acute intestinal infection can have different characteristics and, depending on the pathogen, be accompanied by other symptoms: nausea, frequent vomiting, the appearance of pathological impurities in the feces, muscle tension in the anterior abdominal wall, rumbling and flatulence, frequent liquid stools. In addition, the body will react with inflammatory changes, which will be confirmed by the results of blood, urine, feces;
- Oncological pathology. More often it is a benign pathology: uterine myoma, endometriosis, prostate adenoma. Tumors of a malignant nature can originate from cells of any organ, cause cancerous cachexia and intoxication of the human body.
Pain during pregnancy
A separate issue is the pain syndrome in pregnant women. If the lower abdomen hurts, which happens during pregnancy, a woman urgently needs to visit a doctor.
Doctors conditionally divide pain during pregnancy into two groups: obstetric and general.
Obstetric includes the threat of termination of pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy and detachment of the normally located placenta.
Non-obstetric, or general, refers to pain arising along the intestinal tube, when stretching the muscles and ligamentous apparatus rebuildingthe body of a woman, pain in acute surgical pathology and displacement of the growing uterus of internal organs.
With the threat of miscarriage, a woman's lower abdomen hurts, the lumbar region, accompanied by pathological bleeding. Usually, pain during a spontaneous abortion is not given to other parts of the body, and if untreated, it can intensify, take on the character of cramping, and the bleeding increases.
Pain with ectopic localization of the ovum can be on both sides, it passes as a spontaneous abortion with frequency, cramping contraction of the muscular apparatus of the uterus and tubes. The duration of the painful attack is short, the attacks occur at intervals.
When the fallopian tubes rupture, a woman experiences cramping intense pains, more often against the background of complete health and well-being. The condition is accompanied by blood loss, impaired consciousness.
In late pregnancy, premature detachment of the normally located placenta may occur. The condition is urgent, it poses a danger to both the life of the mother and the child.
Detachment occurs after abdominal trauma, during severe gestosis in the second half of pregnancy, abnormal labor, with a short umbilical cord.
Detachment of a normally located placenta is accompanied by severe pain, bleeding and signs of oxygen starvation of the fetus. At the same time, there may be no symptoms that speak for external bleeding, a woman loses a large amount of blood in a short period, a lethal outcome can occur in minutes. The uterus is dense to the touch, its palpation is painful, the condition of the fetus suffers.
During pregnancy, the growing uterus infringes on and displaces nearby organs, which can also be accompanied by pain.
Pulling pain in the lower abdomen occurs when the pelvic organs are displaced and when the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall are strongly stretched. The intestinal tube is strongly compressed by the uterus, the movement of chyme and feces is difficult, they accumulate in the lumen of the intestine, stretching its walls, which leads to irritation of the nerve endings and the appearance of pain mainly on the left.
Therefore, it is important to follow the diet for a pregnant woman, control the diet, and have regular bowel movements.