How to treat and prevent nosebleeds in children
Learning to stop nosebleeds
The condition in which periodically bleeds from the nose are called epistaxis in medicine. There is hardly a person who would not have encountered him at least once in his life. If the causes of bleeding from the nasal cavity are various injuries, then these bleeding can be considered natural. In case of damage to the tissues of the body, there is a violation of the integrity of the vessels and, accordingly, hemorrhages of varying severity.
Their duration depends on the extent of the damage, blood counts, blood pressure values. When blood vessels bleed, seemingly without reason, it is necessary to find out what is the reason.
Why is my nose bleeding?
The main causes of nasal bleeding can be:
- One of the main factors causing sudden bleeding is high blood pressure. Hemorrhages occur against the background of additional symptoms: tinnitus, dizziness, headache, a disorder of consciousness may appear;
- Cause epistaxis and external influences:
- Inhalation of too dry or cold air leads to drying out of the mucous membrane of the nasal passages and an increase in the fragility of blood vessels;
- In case of sun or heat stroke, nosebleeds are a characteristic symptom - these conditions may be accompanied by an emerging feeling of nausea, vomiting, general weakness, disturbance of consciousness;
- Serious or minor injuries to the nose, in addition to bleeding, are accompanied by painful sensations, pronounced swelling. They can lead to deformation of the face;
- Blood clots in abundant discharge may indicate inflammatory diseases of the sinuses - sinusitis and sinusitis, runny nose - rhinitis;
- Bleeding is a side effect when taking certain medications: both nasal sprays and drops from the common cold, and drugs that change the composition of the blood - affect clotting. One of these means are artificially synthesized hormones;
- Neoplasms of a benign or malignant nature, additional signs of the appearance of which are swelling, frequent pain, deformation of the original shape of the nose, cause periodic bloody discharge;
- Epistaxis provokes some endocrine diseases.
It is imperative to take a blood test and undergo additional examinations, if, in addition to bleeding at the slightest injury, bruises and bruises appear on the skin, women have spotting or bleeding from the uterus that does not go away on their own. This may indicate the initial stages of various blood diseases - thrombocytopenic purpura, leukemia, and others.
Blood from the nose during pregnancy is allocated due to a change in hormonal status. In this state, an increased load falls on the body, and it does not always withstand it.
The amount of blood pumped through the vessels increases - the pressure rises to ensure an uninterrupted supply of oxygen to all organic systems and additionally to the uterus through a new circle of blood circulation - the placental one. Vessels that are not used to working in an enhanced mode burst.
Spider veins and hematomas form on the body, and blood is secreted from the nose.
Epistaxis during pregnancy is caused by a decrease in the amount of nutrients in the body necessary for its normal life, which includes the hematopoietic function. The most common cause of bleeding is a lack of vitamin K and calcium.
In addition, spikes in blood pressure are often observed in pregnant women.
Hemophilia can cause nosebleeds in a child.
This serious hereditary disorder is not necessarily diagnosed immediately after birth or in the first months of life.
It can manifest itself during puberty, against the background of pronounced hormonal changes.
Blood from a child's nose may be due to the fact that he has inserted a foreign body into his nasal passage and is trying to remove it on his own. If 1 nasal passage is free, then additional symptoms - cyanosis of tissues, wheezing during breathing, airway congestion - may not be.
All other causes of bleeding in children are similar to those in adults.
The fragility of blood vessels is caused by stressful conditions, increased loads, improper daily regimen. If the balance between work and rest is disturbed, reversible changes occur in the body.
Frequent bleeding occurs when the immune status changes in HIV-positive people.
Sometimes, when trying to find out why epistaxis manifests itself with enviable regularity, an addiction to cocaine is found.
This narcotic drug destroys the structure of the nasal mucosa, leading to its atrophy, resulting in irreversible deformations of the nasal cartilage and a violation of the aesthetics of appearance.
First aid for nosebleeds
How to stop nosebleeds?
Injured field trThe car should be seated so that it does not choke with discharge, apply cold to the affected area and seek medical attention.
Be sure to take care of a tray or other container for spitting out blood - if it enters the stomach, intoxication may develop.
Helps to stop epistaxis of digital pressure. The wings of the nose are pressed with force for 5-10 minutes - but it is better to use tampons if you have sterile materials at hand.
You can tampon the nasal passages on your own - insert gauze turundas or cotton balls soaked in 3% hydrogen peroxide solution or 5% aminocaproic acid solution into them.
Ordinary vasoconstrictor drops from the common cold reduce blood loss - Galazolin , Sanorin , Naphthyzin . They are used both in case of injury and in other conditions.
Heat or sunstroke, increased blood pressure.
In addition to the above measures, these conditions require stabilization. The victim needs to measure blood pressure.
In most cases, after using drugs that lower it, the bleeding stops.
In the future, if it is not possible to stop the bleeding within half an hour, it may be necessary to apply a sling bandage and hospitalization. It is performed in a seated position.
If a child has a foreign body in his nose, tampons are not inserted and a bandage is not applied. It is also not recommended to turn over and shake the baby - if a foreign body slips through the nasopharynx into the respiratory tract, he may suffocate. The child needs to be taken to the doctor as soon as possible to clear the nasal passage.
Do not ignore frequent bleeding and immediately contact a specialist to identify their cause and prescribe adequate treatment. Be healthy!