Allergic Rhinitis Symptoms | Seasonal Allergy Symptoms 
How to treat allergic rhinitis in adults and children?
In recent years, cases of allergic reactions in adults and children have become more frequent. According to statistics, almost one in five suffers from a certain type of allergy, which most often develops over the age of eighteen.
Allergic rhinitis is one of the forms of the disease. What are its signs? What if a child or an adult has an allergic reaction all year round? How to treat allergic rhinitis, what drugs, drops and sprays are allowed and effective?
Signs and symptoms in adults and children
Rhinitis is often accompanied by nasal congestion, sneezing, tickling, and itchy nose. It is extremely difficult to endure such symptoms, the patient's nervous system suffers, his usual way of life is disrupted and his working capacity decreases. Moreover, if you do not start to treat the pathology in a timely manner, nosebleeds may appear, and polyps in the nose may form. Complications often manifest themselves in the form of chronic diseases such as otitis media, sinusitis, sinusitis, severe smell disorders and bronchial asthma are possible.
Symptoms of allergic rhinitis are observed at different times and differ in characteristics depending on the irritant that caused the negative reaction. If the allergen is animal hair, a runny nose can begin from being in the same room with pets, using woolen blankets, down pillows. As a rule, the patient suffocates from prolonged bouts of sneezing that occur at the moment of contact.
With pollinosis, the reaction manifests itself during the flowering period of trees or weeds - in the spring-autumn period. A characteristic feature by which allergic rhinitis can be detected in an adult or child is a transverse fold on the nose, which occurs due to frequent scratching of the nose. With a year-round course of the disease, the respiratory organ is constantly blocked and the patient has to breathe through his mouth.
Chronic congestive processes lead to loss of taste and smell, complications in the form of secondary infections, severe edema of the mucous membrane and blockage of the paranasal sinuses.
The most common symptoms of the disease are:
- Runny nose;
- Teary eyes;
- Discomfort in the eye area;
- Redness of the conjunctiva;
- Facial skin swelling;
- Allergic cough, cowhich can turn into bronchial asthma.
Examination by an otolaryngologist shows looseness and soreness of the nasal mucosa, discharge, as a rule, is watery. The pharynx usually does not suffer, but in advanced cases, chronic pharyngitis and tonsillitis may develop. Seasonal rhinitis does not lead to complications.
Patients who have been diagnosed with allergic rhinitis should, if possible, avoid contact with chemical odors, perfumes, cosmetics, tobacco smoke, odors of household chemicals and washing powders and other excreta of harmful substances from industrial products.
Causes of the disease
Allergic rhinitis has been increasingly diagnosed in adults and children lately. The causes of a pathological rhinitis are still not clearly understood.
Scientists and doctors suggest that the following factors can cause rhinitis:
- Drinking chlorinated water;
- Environmental degradation;
- Increased radioactive background;
- The presence of harmful chemicals in foods, antibiotics in meat, pesticides and nitrates in vegetables and fruits;
- Long-term use of drugs that weaken the immune system.
The mechanism of the body's response to allergens is well understood. At the initial contact of immunoglobulin with allergens, the cells clump together, and at the repeated contact, their destruction, which is accompanied by the release of histamine and similar mediators. These factors lead to an increase in the permeability of the cell walls, as well as itching, swelling and runny nasal discharge. In children, due to incompletely formed immunity, the allergy manifests itself even during the first contact with the allergen.
Types of allergic rhinitis
Rhinitis can develop in different ways:
- Intermittent - symptoms occur less than four days a week and no longer than four weeks;
- Persistent - symptoms occur more often than four times a week and longer than four weeks.
Pathology may differ in severity, which differs in the amount of discharge and the severity of the symptoms. Mild rhinitis does not lead to sleep disturbances, the patient is active, and the symptoms are mild. With a moderate or severe form of the disease, sleep is disturbed, daytime activity worsens.
A runny nose, swelling of the mucous membranes and other symptoms of allergic rhinitis are much easier to prevent than cure. Knowing about your diagnosis, try to avoid contact with allergens to avoid exacerbations. Doctors are notare advised to take medications uncontrollably. In some cases, you can get rid of unpleasant symptoms using non-drug methods.
- Nutrition control. If outbreaks occur in the spring of flowering plants and trees, you should monitor your diet to avoid cross-reaction. During the flowering period of birches, poplars, hazel and some other trees, avoid pears, apples, potatoes, honey, and parsley. During the flowering period of ambrosia and quinoa, exclude honey, mayonnaise, cabbage and watermelons from the menu. For more information on nutrition, you can consult with your doctor.
- Creating a comfortable indoor atmosphere. The air that a person breathes most of the time determines the state of the body as a whole. In order to prevent exacerbations, minimize the number of books, stuffed toys, porous wallpapers, carpets, curtains, which intensively accumulate dust and bacteria. During the flowering period of plants and trees, carry out wet cleaning every day, install humidifiers and air purifiers at home.
- Keep pets to a minimum.
- Limit contact with allergens. In order to comply with this condition, you need to donate blood at the hospital to identify provoking factors.
- Plasmapheresis. If a runny nose and other characteristic symptoms of an allergic reaction persist for a long time, the doctor may prescribe a mechanical cleaning of the blood from toxins and allergens. This method leads to short-term results, but in some cases it is the only way to alleviate the patient's condition.
All drugs for allergic rhinitis are not aimed at treating the disease, but at eliminating its symptoms and causes: runny nose, swelling, nasal congestion, watery eyes and itching. With an exacerbation of the disease, several groups of drugs are prescribed.
- Antihistamines. Treatment takes place with the help of Tsetrin, Zyrtek, Zodak, Erius. The latter is the most powerful of the angistamines. The listed medicines have no side effects, they help twenty minutes after taking.
- Hormonal preparations in the form of sprays or drops.
- Intranasal glucocorticoids, which include Flicosanze and Budesonide. They are prescribed for severe forms of the disease.
- Leukotriene antagonists. In moderate and severe forms of the disease, treatment is prescribed with the help of Singular and Akolat.
- Vasoconstrictor nose drops. They quickly relieve swelling of the mucous membrane and make breathing easier. It is forbidden to use drugs for more than five days, as they are addictive. Vasoconstrictor drops include Naphtizin, Galazolin, Nazol.
- Antiallergic sprays. These include Kromoheksal, Kromosol, Kromoglin. The drugs are used for milder forms of the disease. The active components of the sprays can prevent the occurrence of a negative reaction.
- Enterosorbents. Treatment with Polphepan, Polisorb, Enterosgel, Filtrum STI helps to eliminate toxins, toxins and allergens from the body.
It is important to remember that the action of drugs for allergic rhinitis is not aimed at treating the disease, but at eliminating its symptoms: runny nose, swelling, nasal congestion, tearing and itching.
When the disease worsens, several groups of drugs are prescribed. Regardless of the group of medication, a specialist should prescribe them, taking into account the characteristics of the body and the reasons that caused the disease.