Bladder Stones in Dogs and Cats: Top 3 Effective Remedies
How to treat a dog for uric acid stones?
If dog breeders and dog handlers understand that finding an animal in the house is not only walking, playing with a ball, and the opportunity to show off in front of their friends a friend of a rare breed , but also daily work, and most importantly - responsibility for the health of pets, then many animal lovers do not think about it.
Meanwhile, the health of the dog largely depends on the attention that the owner pays to it, the daily routine and balanced nutrition. If a dog, especially a purebred one, is fed with anything, then it develops dermatitis - affecting the quality of the animal's hairline, the digestive process is upset, and urolithiasis begins.
Urolithiasis in dogs
You can tell that your pet is having problems urinating by the following symptoms:
- frequent urge to urinate - the animal asks to go outside at short intervals;
- urine is passed in drops;
- the urine becomes cloudy and bleeds;
- during urination, the dog may whine, squeal, then lick the urethra.
If there is no blockage of the urinary tract calculi, the disease lasts a long time without symptoms, and then it can manifest itself sharply - with the onset of renal failure.
The temperature of the animal rises, first pyelonephritis appears, and then glomerulonephritis.
In some cases, the formation of stones occurs in the bladder - in this case, they are more likely to move through the urethra.
Sometimes calculus blocks the outflow, causing urine to accumulate in the kidneys or bladder, back up from the bladder to the kidneys. In this case, the vessels of the urinary system are damaged, and its function is impaired.
Since urine does not drain, toxins are released from it and enter the bloodstream. Intoxication of the whole organism occurs. The dog becomes weak, lethargic, his breathing quickens, the smell of acetone appears from his mouth.
The symptomatology is in many ways similar to the signs of urolithiasis in humans. If you do not take emergency measures, the animal will die.
Types of calculi
The following types of calculi are formed in dogs.
Struvite - phosphate stones - are most often deposited. They are a complication of a chronic bacterial infection. Bacteria multiply, their waste products are deposited in the sediment, forming nodulesnty. The formation of such stones does not depend on nutrition. In most cases, elderly animals suffer.
The formation of oxalates is directly dependent on the nutrition of the dog. To a small extent, their appearance is influenced by a genetic factor. If protein compounds and calcium predominate in the food, and at the same time the animal does not receive enough liquid, the excess of oxalic acid begins to be deposited, and first small stones appear, and then stones.
Uric acid stones in a dog appear with congenital vascular anomalies or with impaired liver function, which causes the appearance of defects in hepatocytes - liver cells.
This pathology is often based on a genetic factor.
Uric acid salts are deposited due to the fact that part of the blood enters the systemic circulation from the portal vein. The onset of urate stone deposits does not depend on the age of the animal - dogs of the breeds are at risk: Terriers, Dalmatians, Miniature Schnauzers, Australian Shepherds, Kern- terriers, Irish wolfhounds, Australian shepherds, Maltese lapdogs.
Stone deposition begins at puppy age, in most cases in males.
Cystines are extremely rare in dogs. When faced with such a pathology, the veterinarian tries to recall such casuistic cases. Amino acids are precipitated when urine is highly acidic.
Diagnosis and treatment of canine urolithiasis
In most cases, the diagnosis is made on the basis of an X-ray examination. Cystography or excretory urography may be required. Be sure to catheterize the animal in order to take urine for a general analysis, bacteriological culture. Blood is donated for biochemistry. The final conclusions about the nature of calculi are made on the basis of research after removal of the stones.
Treatment depends on the condition of the animal and the presence or absence of urinary tract obstruction. The stones are pushed through the urethra into the bladder using a retrograde urohydropropulsion, a thin catheter, performing a urethrotomy or urethrostomy. The stones are then removed by surgery.
If it is precisely established - after laboratory studies - the nature of the stones, then with a stable condition of the dog, conservative treatment is carried out. For this, first of all, a special diet is prescribed.
In case of urate stones in the composition of the animal's food, the amount of proteins is limited - which in the case of dogs is quite difficult to do without the purchase of special feeds - they reduce the content of products with purines, introduce compounds that alkalinize urine into food.
Along with the diet for urate stones in dogs, drug treatment is carried out. Allopurinol and other xanthine oxidase inhibitors are prescribed, ligation is performed for port-quarter shunts.
Sodium bicarbonate is added to food for alkalization. You need to calculate the dosage of the drug in this way,to keep urine pH at 7 units. Sodium bicarbanate is available in powder. An adult dog needs about 125 g per day - for guidance: a teaspoon of powder contains 1 g of the product. The dog owner can control the acidity of urine himself with the help of special test strips.
Sodium bicorbanate is also added to specialized dry feeds, as the ideal feed has not yet been created.
C / D feed has to be alternated, which is harmful to the digestive tract of the animal.
Veterinarians advise purchasing Hill's PD Canine and PURINA Veterinary Diets Canine Fofmula for the treatment of urolithiasis. They start to feed the first food first, and after 45 days switch to the second.
You have to adhere to a diet even when an operation was performed to eliminate urolithiasis - otherwise there will be a relapse of the disease.
Caring for a dog with urolithiasis
You need to tune in that the treatment will be long - at least 8 weeks. In some cases, you will have to limit the pet's diet for 4-5 months. The stones dissolve slowly.
Most animals quickly get used to the new diet, eat with pleasure, and within 2-3 days they stop expressing dissatisfaction and return to their old way of life - communicate with the owner, play, can be trained and developed.
If the dog does not want to be treated, it will have to be fiddled with like a small child.
- The food must be warmed up to the temperature of the dog's body - up to 38 ° C before eating;
- hand food;
- dissolve dry food with liquid and feed the animal only when it swells.
If you have to resort to extreme measures and add old food to new, a relapse of the disease may occur. We need to try to get the dog to agree to eat new food.
From feeding with meat, sub. foods, mineral supplements and your favorite animal vitamins will have to be abandoned, as well as vegetables or cereals from muesli. If urolithiasis is complicated by a bacterial infection, it is necessary to use antibacterial drugs in parallel.
The success of the treatment and the health of the dog depend entirely on the patience and attention of the owner. Take care of your pets!