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How to teach a child to count correctly and quickly in the head?
All parents strive to ensure that their children are smart, develop quickly and be interested in learning. But it is not always so easy and simple to interest the little one in the process of learning something new.
The earliest interest in knowledge among children is just counting objects. It is important not to miss this time and quietly turn arithmetic into an exciting, fun game.
At what age should parents start?
Many people have a natural question: Is it worth loading a child with arithmetic before school? After all, professionals will teach everything there .
This is a deeply mistaken opinion. It is necessary to start teaching the kid when he begins to be interested in the subject of study, and not after this interest has long faded away.
And children become interested in counting quite early, from about 3.5-4 years old. Only it needs to be slightly supported and imperceptibly to complicate the gameplay every day.
If for some reason your cub does not show interest in counting toys, you do not need to say: He probably simply does not have the ability to arithmetic, so I did not succeed in exact sciences as a child either. You need to interest him. Gradually incorporate into his daily development activities what you have missed so far: start counting toys, buttons on clothes, steps on the way home.
How to teach a child to count in the head and avoid mistakes?
There are many different methods of teaching counting, you are free to choose or mix them and come up with your own. However, you should not start learning counting in such a way that not only will not bring any benefit, but also harm your child in the future.
For example, adding ones : To add two to three, we first add one to three, we get four, then one to four, we get five . And in the opposite direction: To subtract three from four, subtract one from four, there will be three, then one from three, we get two and from two, too, one, there will be one .
This method is very commonn, but he develops and consolidates the habit of slowly counting in children and absolutely does not develop memorization and thinking. Make sure that kindergarten or elementary school teachers do not use finger and one techniques to teach your child. It is quick and easy to teach this, but it is very difficult to discourage this habit.
Another common wrong way - along the ruler : To add two to three, you need to find number three on the ruler, count two points from it to the right and read the five, this will be the answer to the example. And to subtract three from four, we find a four on the ruler, count three points to the left from it and read the answer on the ruler. This type of counting with the use of such a handy calculator is like a ruler, as if specially invented so that the baby does not start thinking and memorizing.
How to teach a child to count quickly in the head?
The study of oral counting should always take place with elements of the game. With the help of training sessions, which are necessarily repeated every day, not just mindless memorization is achieved, but conscious memorization of both visual and tactile memory, which is then fixed for a long time.
It is important to maintain the algorithm and consistency of the acquired skills:
- First teach you to see the difference between many items and one ;
- Explain the difference between the concepts: equal, greater, less ;
- Teach ordinal and quantitative;
- Explain how to match the quantity with the accompanying figure;
- Examine parts 1 to 10;
- Teach you to search for the answer in elementary math problems in several ways.
Only mental arithmetic will develop memory, intelligence and ingenuity. This is what will come in handy in future adult life.
Your child will still decide examples at school, when practicing accuracy and attention. And counting in the mind should be started at an early age for the development of intelligence. By the beginning of mastering the oral counting, he should already be able to correctly count at least five toys, buttons, birds, or fish and at the same time understand the concepts of more and less . You do not need to use all these improvised items in further training.
It's worth starting with the addition and subtraction of homogeneous objects. This involves both visual and tactile memory. If a child has problems with counting objects, then it is better to start from the very beginning and patiently explain to him again how to cope with determining the number of buttons on a shirt, for example. And then move on to more complex lessons.
How to teach a child to count mentally on bricks
There is a great and quick way to learn with bricks. You can start doing such a spaspecial since two years old. All you need for this is only cards from 1 to 5 and a box with squares in a row. You can buy them at any baby store or make your own. By the way, the little one will be happy to take part in this.
Do not replace the box with counting sticks or cubes that cannot be placed in a row. Such objects stand randomly, they do not have a constant configuration, so they cannot be deposited in memory as a whole picture. They also have a fundamental difference from fingers. The box can be covered with a palm or removed from the eyes, filled and empty cells will quickly be remembered. And his fingers are always with him, he can easily feel them, and there is simply no point in memorizing anything.
Practice game Putting cubes to numbers
Leave the card numbered 1 and number 2 on the table. Next to it is a box with one cube.
Ask the kid how many filled cells are in the box. After he answers correctly, show him the card with the number 1, name it and leave it next to the box. Put another one in the box and ask to tell me, not counting how many cubes there are now.
After you get the correct answer that now there are two items in the box, put the number 2 next to it, name it, remove the number 1 from the box, and put the number 2 in its original place. Repeat this game several times.
The student will quickly remember the two cubes in appearance, and will soon begin to determine the number immediately, without counting. At the same time, it will remember cards with numbers 1 and 2 and will show the number corresponding to the number of cubes in the box.
Gnomes in the house training game
A box with cubes will be a house, cells will be rooms, and the objects themselves will be fabulous gnomes. Place the cube in the box. It will be - One gnome entered the house . Then ask: What if one friend comes to the first one, how many gnomes there will be in the house? If the kid cannot tell right away, put another cube next to the house. Now he will definitely say that there are two gnomes in the house.
Same with the question: If one gnome leaves . Gradually complicate the game. Tell the house now has a roof. Close the box with something and repeat the process. Whenever a student says the correct number of gnomes, remove the roof and allow him to add or remove a gnome and make sure he answered correctly.
Remember for yourself that kids don't need to download all the information at once. It is not worth overloading the child's memory by forcing him to do it by force. Enough 15-20 minutes a day, unless of course he himself asks for more time.
You can combine counting lessons with reading lessons. Over time, when the simplest examples are worked out to automatism, teach you to see arithmetic in the world around you. For example, a great way to teach a child to quickly count examples in his head is to count the components of the numbers of cars arriving by.
Children are interested in keeping track of the car and have time to count the numbers on the license plate and this is a great workout. Have patience, imagination and remember that your child is always the smartest for you!