Deadly Worms!!! – A look at Soil Transmitted Helminths
How to cure a child from helminthiasis?
Helminthic invasion is common in children. Children are famous explorers, they taste the world around them literally. During their research, they carry the eggs of parasites into the body, which subsequently actively develop. Until the age of 14, 85% of children have had time to recover from helminthiasis.
Helminthic invasions can be masked under diseases of different etiology, which makes it difficult to establish a diagnosis. Infection with worms lowers children's immunity, after vaccination it blocks the production of post-vaccination antibody titers. Treatment of helminthiasis in children has not only medical, but also social significance.
helminthiasis in children
Methods of infection and treatment of the disease differ depending on the implementation of the life cycle of helminths.
With contact helminthic invasions - hymenolepiasis and enterobiasis - the eggs of the worms enter the child's body through household items and dirty hands.
Ascaris colonize the intestines, reaching the invasive stage, immature eggs undergo part of their development in the soil.
Biohelminthiasis, these include echinococcosis and opisthorchiasis, children become infected from pets and when meeting wildlife. Before these helminths become dangerous to humans, they must develop to larval forms in the intermediate organism.
Worms are divided by localization in the body:
- roundworms, pinworms, intestinal eels, whipworm colonize the intestines;
- nematodes - filamentous worms and pulmonary flukes - prefer the respiratory system;
- nematodes Trichinella species, flat flukes, and migratory roundworms of the Tohokara species - canine roundworms - invade various tissues, moving along the bloodstream;
- flukes of various types: felines, squirrels and others stop in the hepatobiliary tract, occupy the liver and pancreas.
Also, helminthic invasions are classified depending on the type of pathogens:
- nematodes - they are provoked by roundworms;
- cestodoses - tape;
- trematoses - flukes.
Signs of the disease , depending on the type of pathogens and location of localization.
Symptoms of helminthiasis in children
Symptoms of helminthiasis in children can be disguised as other types of diseases.
Signs of pinworm infestation are most clearly visible. The child becomes restless, he has colic in the intestines for no apparent reason, the stool becomes unstable. Itching occurs at night in the anus, which parents quickly notice.
Signs of helminthiasis with other types of invasions in children are not so clearly noticeable:
- Ascariasis. Symptoms may be absent or resemble pinworm infestation. Intestinal obstruction may occur, weight loss is noted;
- Toxocariasis can also be asymptomatic. But in most cases, there are signs of bronchitis - there is a cough and pulmonary wheezing, visual acuity decreases;
- Trichocephalosis causes acute anemia, but may be asymptomatic;
- With trichinosis, the temperature reaches a subfebrile value, a febrile state occurs, the stool becomes liquid - diarrhea can last more than 2 months, muscle cramps appear;
- Flukes of all kinds cause symptoms similar to pancreatitis and cholecystitis;
- When the body is infected with pulmonary flukes, the temperature rises, pulmonary infiltrates are recorded, pleurisy and signs of bronchitis can be detected in the picture. Clear signs of hepatitis and enteritis;
- Signs of bovine tapeworm infection: prolonged dyspepsia and the presence of segments in the stool;
- Echinococcus - cysts in the liver, lungs, even cysts in the heart and brain were diagnosed.
The symptoms of worms are so different that it is possible to detect infection only by observing the development of the disease in dynamics.
Diagnostics of helminthic invasions
Research for the presence of parasitic infection is serious enough and may require a thorough examination.
First of all, they donate feces, a histological coprogram may be required. In some cases it is preferable to have an anal fold swab.
Early infection can be detected using serological antibody testing. To identify worms, organic fluids are also examined: bile, blood, sputum.
For the diagnosis of chinococcosis, instrumental studies are carried out: X-ray, various types of tomography, ultrasound.
When trichinillosis is detected, a biopsy of muscles and skin is performed, without duodenal intubation, opisthorchiasis cannot be detected.
Treatment of helminthiasis in children
Therapy is carried out with anthelmintic drugs that target a certain type of parasite. The agent can have various effects and destroy larvae, eggs or adult parasites.
In most cases, preventive treatment is carried out for all family members with whom the child lives.
Some antihelminthic drugs are used to kill various types of worms. With trichinosis, ascariasis and entmebendazole, pyrantel and albendazole are used for erobiose; opisthorosis, teniidosis and schistosomiasis are treated with praziquantel.
After completing the antiparasitic course, a control examination is mandatory to prevent re-infection.
In some cases, a repeated therapeutic course is repeated 10-14 years after the initial infection.
The presence of these parasites in the body provokes the onset or exacerbation of other diseases. They are stopped at the same time as the underlying cause is treated.
For relief of allergic manifestations accompanying the course of helminthiasis in children, antihistamines are prescribed. In the presence of intoxication syndrome, infusion or oral detoxification is performed.
In especially severe cases, helminthic infestations cause severe diseases: myocarditis, vasculitis, arachnoiditis. These conditions require the administration of glucocorticosteroids.
Prevention of helminthiasis in children
Helminthiasis in children and their prevention is one of the important branches of modern pediatrics. It is based on compliance with sanitary and hygienic rules.
Parents should teach how to wash their child's hands before eating, after returning from a walk, contact with animals, and going to the toilet. It is necessary to try to wean the child from taking hands and foreign objects in his mouth. All vegetables and fruits used for food must be thoroughly rinsed with running water, and the greens must be washed with boiled ones.
It is required to comply with cooking technology and food storage conditions. You can not store ready-made food together with semi-finished products and raw foods that are further heat-treated.
Do not allow a child to sit on the ground in wet panties, bury himself naked on the beach in the sand.
In girls, some types of parasites can penetrate through the vagina.
General preventive measures are carried out taking into account the source of the invasion, which may be caused by the following factors:
- Sewage drains need to be treated carefully, just like feces used for fertilization;
- Increased attention should be paid to examining children for helminthic invasion and, if detected, to carry out planned treatment. Sometimes not only a sick child is isolated, but also members of his family, the collective in which he was constantly located.
- Pets need to be dewormed periodically.
- In the manufacture and sale of foodstuffs, hygiene rules must be strictly observed.
- You should only swim in water bodies that are periodically cleaned of pollution and molluscs - intermediate hosts of flukes.
- There should be no dog walking in the area of playgrounds.
A person often exposes himself to the danger of helminth infection, without observing hygiene measures.
EIf you take seriously the prevention of helminthic invasions, the risk of contracting helminths in children decreases many times.