Heart disease in newborns
Congenital heart disease in newborns or CHD are anatomical defects observed in the most important organ of the body, vascular connections, valve apparatus and other parts. Today, there are many types of heart defects that develop even inside the mother's womb.
What provokes the onset of the disease
Causes of neonatal heart disease include:
- The mother of the child previously had abortions, experienced miscarriages, the birth of a dead baby or childbirth before the due date, in general, pregnancy is associated with strong negative experiences for her;
- The causes of CHD can be hidden in infections that have entered the body of a pregnant woman at the very initial stages of gestation, when the formation and formation of blood vessels and the baby's heart occurs;
- If a pregnant woman has health problems, overcoming which requires taking serious medications;
- Since congenital heart pathologies are hereditary, the risk of their occurrence in each subsequent child increases in the event that one of his blood relatives already has a similar problem.
As medical practice shows, heart disease in newborns is usually laid at 3-8 weeks of their prenatal existence, when the heart and vascular connections serving it begin to form in the embryo.
If a future woman in labor has suffered a viral disease in the first trimester of gestation, then the risk of getting an heir with CHD increases several times. The most insidious in this regard are the herpes and rubella viruses, although taking hormones, analgesics and other heavy medications can have a negative effect.
How can a disease be identified?
Usually, the first signs of pathology are recognized already in the maternity ward, although with a smeared pathology, the baby can even be sent home.
This is where vigilant parents can themselves notice the following signs of congenital heart disease in newborns:
- The baby has difficulty sucking the breast;
- Spits up often;
- The child has an increase in the frequency with which the heart muscle contracts up to 150 beatsper minute;
- Blue, better known as cyanosis, appears on the nasolabial triangle, arms and legs;
- Symptoms of heart disease, usually seen in newborns , gradually begin to develop into respiratory and heart failure, in which there is a meager weight gain, edema and shortness of breath;
- The kid gets tired very quickly;
- The baby drops his chest to rest, and sweat appears over his upper lip;
- When examined by a pediatrician, symptoms such as , such as heart murmurs are revealed. In such a situation, it is mandatory to undergo an ECG and consult a cardiologist.
Process of clarification and diagnosis
If a child suspects a defect in the structure of the heart, he is urgently sent to an appointment with a cardiologist or immediately to a cardiac surgery center. Its employees once again check all the symptoms and identify them with all types of CHD, assess the nature of the pulse and blood pressure, study the state of all systems and organs, conduct appropriate studies and analyzes.
If the defect raises any doubts, the baby will have to undergo catheterization - the introduction of a probe through the vessels.
Parents themselves often resent the fact that the pathology was not established at the stage of gestation, when it was possible to make a decision to terminate the pregnancy.
There may be several reasons for this situation:
- unprofessional staff of the antenatal clinic;
- imperfection of equipment used for standard and planned research;
- natural structural features of the heart and blood vessels of the fetus, which make it difficult to see the presence of an anomaly.
Radical treatment of a heart defect found in newborns , consists only in surgical intervention, since medication therapy makes it possible only to relieve the intensity of symptoms and temporarily improve the quality of life of a little person.
Medication is usually used to prepare a child's body for subsequent surgical abuse.
Open-type operations are carried out if treatment of severe defects of the combined type is required, when a huge amount of surgery must be performed immediately.
These procedures are assigned:
- patients whose health condition allows them to wait for their turn for surgery, which can last a year or more;
- children who need to correct the defect in the next six months;
- for patients requiring treatment for a maximum of a couple of weeks;
- Children with severe CHD who may die within the next 12-24 hours.
It is regrettable, but there are children who from birth have only one ventricle, no heart septum andwhether the valves are underdeveloped. These babies can only count on palliative interventions, which temporarily improve their health.
In the event that minor heart defects are observed, doctors recommend that parents adhere to the tactics of waiting. For example, a completely open ductus arteriosus is quite capable of closing on its own several months after the baby is born.
And such an anomaly as the aortic valve with two cusps does not show its presence at all, which completely rejects the need for drug or surgical intervention.
What is the risk of such a disease?
The consequences of congenital heart disease in newborns can be the most dire if they are not diagnosed and treated in time.
Otherwise, there is every chance that the child will be able to live a normal life only by periodically visiting a cardiologist and conducting preventive examinations.
It is likely that in order for the consequences of the transferred operations not to make themselves felt again, you will have to accustom the heir to the need to exercise feasible physical activity, go out a lot, eat fortified foods and avoid addictions to alcohol, sweets and tobacco.