Ovarian cyst- causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology
Functional ovarian cyst
A functional ovarian cyst is a common gynecological problem that will go away on its own in most cases. Surprisingly, many women are unaware that they are exposed to it.
Translated from Greek, this scary word that every woman is afraid to hear means a bubble or a bag. Actually, this characterizes the painful phenomenon completely. A cyst is a neoplasm in the form of a bladder filled with liquid or semi-liquid contents. Forming in the ovaries, it increases its volume several times.
Among all types of ovarian cysts, functional (they are also called follicular or ordinary) are most common. And as already mentioned, in most cases they do not require medicinal or surgical intervention. Although, like every disease, it needs to be diagnosed and monitored by doctors.
Disease or norm?
The question often arises: if it occurs so often and passes by itself, can declare it the norm and not worry about it? But although it can appear in a completely healthy woman, still not everyone is susceptible to it, which means that it should still be considered a disease.
The reproductive function is inherent in man and woman by nature. We will not analyze how this happens in men, we are now interested in the female reproductive system.
When a woman is healthy, everything happens like this:
- monthly in the follicle - a kind of bladder, the egg matures;
- on the 14-15th day, the bladder bursts, and the egg leaves the fallopian tube - this is called ovulation;
- if the egg meets the sperm, pregnancy occurs;
- if not, then in another 12-14 days menstruation occurs;
- and a new egg is ripening in a new bubble.
In the event of the onset of a cyst, the follicle does not burst in due time and ovulation does not occur. Meanwhile, the bubble continues to develop and grow, filling with liquid. The reasons for the malfunctioning of the ovaries and the formation of a functional cyst, doctors can not say for certain, but traditionally blame hormonal surges.
At the same time, a functional ovarian cyst does not give obvious symptoms. FA woman lives quietly, not even suspecting that something is going wrong in her body. Only sometimes the formation causes unpleasant pulling sensations in the lower abdomen and disrupts the menstrual cycle.
Therefore, with a delay in menstruation, the development of a functional ovarian cyst can be suspected. Most often, the presence of this problem is discovered by accident: during a planned ultrasound scan or while treating another gynecological problem.
Medical dispute: will it go away or cure?
Since a functional ovarian cyst does not pose a significant threat to health, the question is whether to treat it or wait until it passes by itself, doctors roughly divide the half into the middle. At the same time, everyone brings their own arguments. Some people think that there is no need to heal.
The usual observation of a woman for her periods and repeated ultrasound a month after the detection of the formation is enough. Others argue that there are consequences if not treated. Indeed, even from the image on the ultrasound, not every specialist can say with confidence that this is a normal functional neoplasm, and not something else, as it happens in ninety percent of a hundred.
And what about the other ten percent? And in other cases, it can be anything from cancers to other types of cysts leading to infertility and bleeding.
And yet, every doctor is simply obliged to prescribe a re-examination. It usually occurs in a month, on the 5-7th day from the beginning of menstruation. And then everything depends on the results. If the dynamics are positive - the neoplasm has disappeared or decreased in size, then you don't have to worry. And if the dimensions are the same, or the bubble has increased in size, additional examination cannot be avoided.
This examination includes mandatory tests, as well as a blood test for oncology, and an appointment with an endocrinologist to look for hormonal disorders.
There is another complication that a functional neoplasm can lead to, especially if it has reached a large size. For example, it can twist or break. This is accompanied by abdominal pain, fever, and bleeding. Then the intervention of doctors cannot be avoided.
Sometimes, when the neoplasm is painful, during the period of observation, pain relievers may be prescribed. Naturally, active physical exercise and sexual intercourse are prohibited. Functional cysts are treated with hormones.
They should suppress follicle-stimulating hormone and inhibit the function of oocyte maturation. Such treatment lasts up to six months. If it did not bear fruit or the neoplasm is too large, doctors decide to remove it.
Removal occurs by laparoscopy, with the simultaneous taking of material for examination for cancer cells. Sometimes, if the patient is too youngode, laparoscopy is replaced by puncture. In this case, instead of the pumped out liquid, alcohol is introduced into the cavity of the bubble to further stop the formation of cysts.
How to avoid cysts?
Recommendations for prevention are the most general, since the causes and nature of the incorrect behavior of a mature egg have not been clarified. Basically, it is recommended to lead a completely healthy lifestyle. Less stress, alcohol, cigarettes, and more vegetables, sports and good sleep, and then it is possible that such a phenomenon as a functional ovarian cyst will remain an unknown disease for you. Although there is no 100% guarantee.
As for women who are regularly susceptible to such a disease, they are advised to drink a course of contraceptives, which can positively affect the functioning of the reproductive system.
Pregnancy with functional ovarian cyst
I must say that this is quite possible. Bubble may have formed before the woman became pregnant. And hormonal failure could have occurred, in which the second ovary ovulated. In this case, the woman needs to be under constant medical supervision, especially in the first trimester of pregnancy.
Further, if the neoplasm has not disappeared, as is often the case, or if its size exceeds ten centimeters, then, despite the threat of miscarriage, a decision is made about the operation. Otherwise, the cyst threatens with complications for the future health of the child and the pregnant woman, as well as the fact that the appendages of the neoplasm can block the birth canal. The optimal laparoscopy period is 16-18 weeks of pregnancy.
In conclusion, I would like to emphasize that for any deviation in women's health that you find, or symptoms such as delayed menstruation or pain in the lower abdomen, it is always better to consult a doctor and be examined.
And even if you have a functional ovarian cyst, this is not a reason to despair. Maintain a positive attitude - this is the main cure for any disease at all times, and you will surely be cured!