Follicle Development and Ovulation
Follicles in the ovaries: their meaning and function
The follicles in a woman's ovaries allow her to become pregnant, but only when they are normally ripe and of good quality. Deviations from the norm are fraught with the development of a cyst, and sometimes infertility. There are several reasons why this happens, so you need to seek medical help immediately at the slightest discomfort, as women's health can be severely affected. The size of the follicles, as well as their number, play an important role.
Follicle and its function
The main job of the follicles of the left and right ovaries is to protect eggs from the harmful effects of various factors.
The eggs that are inside the follicles have not yet matured, so their protection, the normal course of maturation and fertilization, the course of pregnancy largely depend on the abilities of the follicles.
In females, the development of the reproductive system occurs already in the perinatal period - the number of ovum follicles is formed and changes in this number never occur.
One follicle matures in a month. In addition to their protective function, they produce female hormones called estrogens.
The norm for the number of follicles maturing in the ovaries
Their number is calculated taking into account the day of the menstrual cycle.
For example, multiple, 2-3 days after menstruation, are not a pathology. They then develop in different ways.
In the middle of the loop, one or two of them are larger than the rest. By the end of the cycle, one large remains. It is from it that a mature and ready-to-fertilization egg comes out. This follicle is called dominant, prevailing.
The onset of menstrual flow indicates that there has been a rupture of it.
When the norm is violated: causes and consequences
A violation is said in the case when in oneovary more than 10 follicles. Pathology can only be detected by ultrasound of the pelvic organs. Moreover, their number does not change during the cycle. When there are many of them, then this does not at all indicate any disease. This phenomenon can be explained by overwork, frequent stress, emotional overstrain. Their number usually returns to normal after the first ovulation.
Underdevelopment can be triggered by other reasons:
- Incorrectly selected oral contraceptives;
- Thyroid dysfunction;
- Excessive prolactin production;
- Problems in the endocrine system.
Such a violation and its cause can be identified using a number of diagnostic procedures and a gynecological examination.
In any case, there are two options for the development of the violation: the first is a normal menstrual cycle with one dominant follicle; the second - there is no dominant, the egg does not mature, the cycle is broken, there is no possibility of fertilization.
In the latter case, the male sex hormone accumulates in the woman's body, which entails the absence of pregnancy.
Role of dominant follicles
As a rule, they develop unevenly in two ovaries. When both are diagnosed as dominant, there is a chance of conceiving twins. But this will only happen if they both ovulated, which is quite rare.
Two dominant follicles maturing in one ovary increase the chances of multiple pregnancies.
Left or right ovarian follicle persistence
Confirmation of such a diagnosis is very bad news. This means that the dominant follicle develops as it wants until the moment of rupture. As a result, it does not allow the egg to escape and, over time, can transform into a cyst.
Persistence prevents ovulation. Pathology can be provoked by hormonal imbalance, an excessive amount of the male sex hormone. Untimely treatment leads to infertility.
Treatment consists of taking hormonal drugs. In addition, it is necessary to comprehensively influence the body. The first step is to suppress male hormones. Therapy lasts from 5 to 9 days of the cycle. Then hormones are injected intramuscularly from day 9 of the cycle. The therapy lasts 5-7 days. In addition, the pelvic organs are stimulated. For this, laser therapy, massage, ultrasound are used.
Absence of follicles in both ovaries
This condition is due to dysfunction of these organs or early menopause. The violation is eliminated through hormone therapy.
What is it if antral follicles are found in the ovaries
With the development of artificial insemination technologies, scientists began to pay attention to the qualitative and quantitative composition of oocytes. These parameters allow you to estimate how muchthe chance of a particular woman getting pregnant is high. Antral follicle counts have been developed for this purpose.
What are antral follicles?
These are follicles, the size of which does not exceed 8 mm. They are counted using transvaginal ultrasound. The results of their counting allow you to establish the ovarian reserve - the number of eggs ready for immediate fertilization.
If the antrum is less than 4, then ovarian stimulation will be low, the likelihood of pregnancy is the same, therefore IVF is recommended. If there are about 7 of them, you can try to conceive a baby yourself.
When their number ranges from 18 to 26, then the chance of successful conception is the highest.
If there are more than 26 of them, then there is a possibility of developing polycystic ovary.
What does it mean if many follicles are found in the ovary
Such a pathology can be triggered by taking hormonal contraceptives, increased prolactin, stress, dramatic weight loss, obesity, endocrine disorders. This means that pregnancy against the background of the disease is unlikely, as it is accompanied by many disorders of the genital area.
This pathology is called polycystic disease, but it has nothing to do with the growth of cysts. A woman must undergo a comprehensive diagnosis without fail. Upon confirmation of the diagnosis, treatment is started.
The therapy is aimed at achieving the following results:
- decrease in the level of male hormones;
- normalization of the cycle if it is broken;
- pregnancy (if necessary);
- metabolic prevention.
Therapy may include a low-calorie diet, hormones, metaformin, antiandrogens, ovulation stimulants.
If conservative treatment is ineffective, they resort to surgical intervention.
Need for puncture for polycystic disease
If on ultrasound the ovary is enlarged and there are many small follicles in it that do not mature and do not grow, then they are called cysts. Puncture allows you to evaluate the follicular fluid, identify the causes of pathology, make a forecast for the future.
The procedure is performed with a thin needle under ultrasound guidance. The seized material is sent for laboratory research. The diagnosis of polycystic disease is made in case of problems with the cycle or absence of ovulation for more than six months, increased levels of male hormones.
Puncture is also used to extract ready-made eggs for IVF. The procedure is performed under general anesthesia. After puncture of the follicles, women often have ovarian pain. In addition, there is tension in the lower abdomen, minor spotting and an increase in temperature to subfebrile levels.
These symptoms may add nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. If you experience a pronounced discomfort, you should immediately contact the doctorchu.