Pathology 345 a eosinophilia eosinopenia cause Case Study
Eosinophilia is a disease with many causes
Human blood contains a large number of cells that perform their specific function. Among them there are such as eosinophils. Their main task is to protect the body of children and adults from parasitic infections.
They are also directly involved in the formation of an allergic reaction and absorb immune antigen-antibody complexes.
If the content of such cells in the blood rises, then a condition called eosinophilia develops. It usually occurs with some parasitic infectious diseases.
Symptoms of eosinophilia
This condition does not have its own symptoms, but rather manifests itself with symptoms characteristic of the disease that provoked eosinophilia.
Children and adults may have the following symptoms:
- If the cause of eosinophilia is an allergy or pathology of the skin, then itching is observed, the skin becomes dry, blisters may appear.
- Autoimmune diseases will cause weight loss without changing the diet.
- The allergic form in children is manifested by allergic dermatitis.
- A blood test shows anemia.
- Enlargement of the liver and spleen can be found in children and adults.
- Body temperature may rise.
- Eosinophilia caused by parasites is manifested by painful lymph nodes, pain in the muscles.
- Pulmonary eosinophilia can manifest as cough and other infectious diseases.
- If the cause lies in the gastrointestinal tract, then eosinophilia is accompanied by vomiting, diarrhea, especially in children.
- The parasitic form of such a pathology is manifested quite clearly by helminthic invasion. In children, it is often parasites that cause this condition.
- Appearing weakness, headache, nausea, decreased appetite can also be symptoms of eosinophilia.
Based on all the listed symptoms, it can be concluded that the manifestations of eosinophilia quite often resemble other pathologies, therefore, only a specialist can make an accurate diagnosis and prescribe an effective therapy.
Blood eosinophilia - causes
Eosinophil cells are formed in the red bone marrow when a foreign protein appears in the body. Eosinophilia is of several types: reactive and caused by blood pathologies.
If we consider the reactive form, then the reasons are quite numerous, among which are most often noted:
- The appearance of parasites in the body, this applies not only to children, but also to adults.
- Malignant tumors also provoke an increase in the number of eosinophils.
- Even a pathology such as heart failure can be the culprit of eosinophilia.
- Pulmonary eosinophilia occurs against the background of bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, occupational diseases of the pulmonary system (this does not apply to children).
- Infectious diseases, including scarlet fever, brucellosis, mononucleosis and some others.
- Certain connective tissue disorders such as arthritis, sarcoidosis.
- Diseases of the skin.
- Eosinophilic pneumonia.
- Lack of immunoglobulins.
- Liver disease.
- Heart muscle defects.
Certain blood disorders can also cause increased eosinophils:
If eosinophilia is found in children, then a thorough examination is imperative.
This condition in babies may have the following reasons:
- Allergy to certain medications.
- Infections received in utero.
- The presence of parasites in the body.
- Skin lesions.
- Fungal diseases.
- Staphylococcal infection.
- Lack of magnesium in the body.
As a rule, if the disease that caused eosinophilia is eliminated, then the content of eosinophils returns to normal.
There is no specific therapy to eliminate this condition, treatment is reduced to combating the disease that provoked an increase in eosinophils in the blood.
That is why, when the analysis shows an increased content of these cells, it is necessary to schedule a comprehensive examination to identify the cause.
Most often, the use of etiopathogenetic therapy has good results. The patient recovers faster. Depending on the causes of this condition, the doctor prescribes appropriate therapy.
Allergic eosinophilia needs:
- In the definition of an allergen.
- Eliminate exposure to the allergic agent.
- If the provocateur of such a condition is not identified, then the doctor most often prescribes nonspecific desensitizing therapy, which includes taking Cetrin , 1 capsule per day. For children under 6 years of age, the dosage should be 5 mg 2 times a day. If children or adults have kidney disease, the dose should be adjusted by a doctor. Treatment is carried out until the number of eosinophils in the blood is normalized.
Pulmonary handicapma eosinophilia, as a rule, is not treated with medication, but in severe cases it is recommended:
- Use of corticosteroids, but the duration of therapy should not exceed 6 days. Doctors prescribe Prednisolone in the amount of 15 mg every other day.
- If the bronchospastic component is strongly pronounced, then it is recommended to administer Theophylline by inhalation. This drug has many contraindications, so the use and dosage, especially in children, should be agreed with your doctor.
- Hospitalization if diagnosed with pulmonary eosinophilia is usually not carried out. Dispensary observation and periodic X-ray examination are required.
If all the reasons for the increase in eosinophils in the blood lie in helminthic invasion, then it is necessary to conduct a course of antiparasitic treatment.
An effective drug is Mebendazole . For adult patients and children over 10 years of age, the dosage is 100 mg once. If the child is from 2 to 10 years old, then the dose should be 2-4 times less and also one dose. When there is a risk of re-infection, then after a month it is advisable to take the drug again.
In the presence of local lesions of the skin, which caused an increase in eosinophils, physiotherapy methods give good results.
Among them are:
- Phonophoresis with Trilon B .
- DMSO application.
If the disease does not respond to therapy and progresses, then hemosorption has a fairly good effect.
When eosinophilia is diagnosed in young patients, then most often doctors take a wait-and-see tactic, and with a rapidly increasing number of eosinophils, hormone therapy is indicated.
Thus, we can conclude that it is impossible to eliminate eosinophilia in all patients in the same way. Treatment is always selected individually, taking into account the cause of this condition.
Complications of eosinophilia
This pathology is fraught with the fact that in case of untimely detection, internal organs may be involved in the pathological process.
Most often affected:
- Digestive tract.
- Nervous system.
If this is observed, then the following means are justified:
- Interferon alpha
With severe hypereosinophilic syndrome, patients may be prescribed therapy with antibodies and antibody-based agents.
If the disease is diagnosed on time, then, as a rule, therapy gives its positive results. The prognosis is favorable, but also depends on the cause and courseanxiety of the underlying disease.
Prevention of eosinophilia
To prevent an increase in eosinophils in the blood means to prevent the development of those pathologies that can provoke this.
We can recommend following these rules:
- Maintain personal hygiene.
- Lead a healthy lifestyle.
- Carry out hardening procedures.
- Introduce more vegetables and fruits into the diet.
- Any abnormalities in the body should not be ignored.
- Timely therapy for all chronic pathologies.
Compliance with these recommendations, although not 100% will save from the development of eosinophilia, but the risk of its occurrence will significantly reduce.
Take care of yourself and the health of your children!