Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C During Pregnancy
Consequences of hepatitis C during pregnancy
Many women are carriers of hepatitis C and are unaware of their condition. They often find out about this when taking tests during registration with a antenatal clinic in connection with pregnancy.
Hepatitis C and pregnancy
The disease is not a contraindication to conception, but chronic hepatitis calls into question the preservation of the pregnancy.
When infected, it is possible to defeat the disease with the help of medications within six months. If during this time the virus has not left the body, it means that the disease has passed into a chronic stage, which is fraught with the destruction of the liver. It is worth noting that the virus is transmitted through blood from an infected person, in addition, some people have a genetic predisposition to it.
False positive for hepatitis C in pregnant women
Often the test shows a positive result, but the woman is not a carrier of the virus. In addition, when re-examining, the results of the analysis can vary greatly. This also happens when donating venous blood in different laboratories. This is due to the use of different diagnostic kits.
False positive results can be caused by:
- Autoimmune diseases;
- Severe infections;
- In pregnant women, this is due to the characteristics of the immune system;
- After taking immunosuppressants;
- Poor quality research;
- Mistake of laboratory technicians;
- Random swapping of sample samples;
- Incorrect preparation of blood samples.
It is believed that false positive results can be triggered by the gestation process. During the period of bearing a child, a woman's blood plasma is considered more difficult to study, therefore it is more difficult to process it. Such metamorphoses are associated with the gestational process, when peculiar proteins of pregnancy are formed, the hormonal background, concentration and trace element composition of the blood change.
How does hepatitis C manifest in pregnant women?social
Symptoms of the disease may be absent or insignificant. Often a person may not notice them or attribute them to another pathology. However, the virus requires treatment, otherwise it will lead to cirrhosis or liver cancer.
With a primary infection, weakness may occur, general health worsens, as with the flu. It should be noted that patients with hepatitis C rarely have jaundice, which is evidence of a failure in the functioning of the liver. When the disease becomes chronic, it is even more difficult to define it based on symptoms alone.
Symptoms usually consist of the following:
- Significant fatigue;
- Muscle pain;
- Sore liver;
- Depression or anxiety;
- Deterioration of concentration and memory.
Treatment of hepatitis C during pregnancy
During this period, it is forbidden to take any medications to combat the disease. This is due to the fact that drugs for treatment, for example, ribavirin and interferon, pose a danger to the fetus, can provoke malformations.
Of course, you should stop drinking alcohol, as it increases the risk of developing cirrhosis and cancer, do not smoke and lead a healthy lifestyle, eat right.
Patients must be protected from the effects of hepatotoxic substances (alcohol, varnishes, paints, combustion products, car exhaust, etc.). Also, you can not take non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, a number of antibiotics and antiarrhythmic drugs.
Significant physical activity, hypothermia and overwork are contraindicated. Meals should be fractional - up to 6 times a day in small portions. The diet should be formulated taking into account the necessary vitamins and minerals.
Women with a chronic form should always be on the lookout, as pathology can acquire a severe course at any time.
Those who have been diagnosed with acute hepatitis C give birth in special infectious diseases wards. Patients with other forms (non-viral) can give birth in a regular maternity hospital.
The method of delivery is selected individually in each case. If there are no contraindications, then natural childbirth is allowed, otherwise - a cesarean section.
The consequences of hepatitis C during pregnancy
An infected woman may have a baby prematurely, be lightweight, and may require special care. When the disease is combined with an overweight expectant mother, the likelihood of developing gestational diabetes is high.
Such women need more careful observation in order to timely determine the possible threat of miscarriage and fetal hypoxia. Some are diagnosed with signs of cholestasis.
The possibility of transmitting the disease to a child during pregnancy or childbirth is very low. According to statistics, this happens in 5 cases out of 100. BeThe likelihood increases if the mother has HIV or the concentration of the virus in her blood is very high.
After birth, the child needs to be tested for the presence of the disease. The presence of the virus in the blood for 18 months after birth is not considered a sign of hepatitis, since the antibodies are of maternal origin. But if the diagnosis is confirmed, the child will need to be regularly taken to the doctor for examinations, donated blood for tests, an ultrasound may be needed.
The consequences of the mother's illness do not affect breastfeeding, since the virus is not transmitted through milk, but there is a risk of infection if the nipples are damaged and the baby has injuries in the oral cavity.
Testing for the presence of a virus in a baby should be carried out at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. When he turns one and a half years old and the tests confirm the disintegration of the acquired maternal antibodies, then we can definitely say that the child is healthy.
Chronic hepatitis C and its effects on pregnancy
It should be noted that conception in the chronic form is almost impossible. This is due to the fact that pathology disrupts menstrual functions and leads to infertility. The more severe the stage, the less likely it is to have a successful conception.
As you know, the disease affects the liver - an organ that takes part in the metabolism of hormones. With its chronic lesion, an imbalance occurs in the ratio of sex hormones, which leads to the absence of ovulation and normal menstruation.
However, successful conception is not ruled out. But in most cases, pregnancy occurs only after treatment of hepatitis C. Even if conception has occurred, it is necessary to consult a hepatologist after a thorough examination.
Therefore, women with chronic hepatitis in the first trimester are sent to the hospital, where they conduct research. The main diagnostic methods are laboratory and clinical, compiled on the patient's history and complaints.
Vaccination against hepatitis A and B during pregnancy
Unfortunately, the vaccine against hepatitis C has not yet been developed, but vaccination against other forms of A and B is possible.
The hepatitis A virus enters the body through contaminated food and water. The vaccine is a killed virus, so it theoretically has no effect on the fetus, but research in this area has not been carried out.
The need for vaccination arises when the risk of infection is high, for example, when traveling to a region where this form is significantly common, or in a situation where there is reason to believe that contact with the virus has already taken place. In such cases, usually after the vaccine, normal immunoglobulin is injected (to increase immunity).
Infection with form B occurs through unsterilized cosmetic and medical instruments, for example, when visiting a dentist, manicure, piercing, tattooing, as well as through household contact with contaminated blood, sexual intercourse.
The vaccine against this disease contains neither live nor wholeny virus, therefore, it is believed that it is safe for the fetus. However, the vaccination is recommended only for those who are at risk, for example, someone close to the pregnant woman is infected. If there is a threat of disease, then in addition to vaccination, the introduction of immunoglobulin is recommended.
A sick person must definitely know and take measures to avoid infecting other people. For example, use separate, that is, personal hygiene items (razor, soap, toothbrush, washcloth, etc.).
You also need to maintain your immunity, be sure to give up bad habits, do not drink alcohol, as it is a kind of catalyst for the transition of the disease into cirrhosis and cancer.