Angina, it isn't illness
Angina in a child
Angina (also known as acute tonsillitis) is one of the most common infectious diseases in children, starting from the age of seven months.
Angina in a child is provoked mainly by viruses and bacteria. It is bacteria that initiate angina in childhood in about a third of all cases. Moreover, in 90-95% of cases, the causative agent is β-hemolytic streptococcus. Viral forms of tonsillitis are more common before the age of 3.
In newborns and infants in the first months of life, it is more often not angina as such, but acute nasopharyngitis.
Angina in infants and young children occurs quite rarely, and is extremely difficult, therefore, in such a situation, only inpatient treatment is necessary.
Streptococcal tonsillitis manifests itself as lacunar or follicular tonsillitis in children.
Streptococcal tonsillitis is not a harmless pathology. The lymphatic tissue of the tonsils is the first to react to the appearance of an infectious agent in the body, but if you do not help to resist it, then the infection can spread through it to all organs and tissues and cause rather serious complications.
Local complications include abscesses and purulent lymphadenitis, leading to surgical intervention in the body. Systemic includes acute rheumatic fever, which develops after 2-3 weeks of illness, less often kidney and heart damage, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, brain, necrotizing fasciitis.
A child with sore throat caused by streptococci is contagious (infectious) to others from the very onset of the disease and without adequate treatment can remain contagious for up to 2 weeks. Antibiotic therapy shortens this period to two days after the onset of the disease.
The symptoms of angina in children are the same, regardless of the infectious agent that provoked the disease:
- Acute onset of the disease, body temperature up to 40 degrees;
- Chills and cold sweats;
- Sharp sore throat;
- Swelling of tonsils, uvula and pharyngeal walls;
- Plaques on the tonsils;
- Loss of appetite or refusal to eat, general lethargy.
Streptococcal angina is differentiated from viral by the presence or absence of nasal discharge and cough. Soreness of the cervical and submandibular lymph nodes is sometimes noted.
To select adequate therapy, a differential diagnosis of bacterial and viral etiology of the disease is required. Although with these pathologies, the symptoms are similar. This is important when choosing the antibiotics necessary to eliminate bacteria and stop possible complications.
The main criterion for the diagnosis is a culture examination of a throat smear for hemolytic streptococcus. Today, there are express methods that allow you to quickly identify this infectious agent in 90% of cases.
In cases of a standard culture study, you must wait for its results. Only on the basis of such an analysis can an effective treatment of acute purulent sore throat in children be prescribed.
This is due to the fact that during the culture study, the sensitivity of bacteria to certain antibiotics is checked.
Having chosen the antibiotics to which the infectious agent is most sensitive, the doctor selects the dosage according to the parameters of your child's body (age, weight, severity of the disease).
It has been proven in practice that antibiotics on the second or third day in children with angina effectively prevent the development of complications.
Treatment of angina in children, provoked by streptococcal infection, requires the use of antibiotics. These drugs are selected based on the culture sensitivity of the infectious agent.
The doctor chooses from penicillins, cephalosporins or macrolides. They can be used in tablet form or in syrups for the smallest, as well as, at the discretion of the doctor, in difficult cases by injection or infusion.
The goal of antibiotic therapy is to completely eliminate the infectious agent from the body. Such tactics are needed to prevent relapses, and to prevent the emergence of bacterial strains that are resistant to the action of this antibiotic. The main thing is not to interrupt the treatment, even if the child's condition has returned to normal.
In addition to antibiotics, sore throat can also be treated with inhalations and sprays containing substances for sanitizing the mucous membrane in the pharynx (inhalipt, oraspet, tantum verde). There are also antibiotics in sprays (bioparox).
Gargling is also prescribed to remove purulent plaque in the throat and prevent the spread of infection throughout the body. Inhalation is done with chlorophyllipt, potassium permanganate, soda and iodine, furacilin.
Removal of tonsils was widely used in past years, and now it is carried out only on strict indications (frequent relapses or rheumatic consequences of the disease).
Antipyretic and pain relievers are also prescribed symptomatically. And don't forget about airing, wet cleaning, and drinking regimes for a sick child.
Viral sore throats are treated by relieving the symptoms that have arisen, and after normalization of body temperature, no resting is required.
Among children, the so-called carriage of streptococcus is quite widespread, while the number of bacteria in the body is small, it does not provoke disease and is not contagious.
Thus, the diagnosis of purulent sore throat for a child is not a sentence at all, but for a complete cure, it is necessary that the doctor decides how to treat purulent sore throat in children, and also fully comply with all his recommendations and prescriptions.